قالب وردپرس درنا توس
Home / Lists / Why Princess Elizabeth never was Queen Elizabeth II at all

Why Princess Elizabeth never was Queen Elizabeth II at all



As we celebrate Black History Month, it's important to look at the brave men and women who deal with prejudice and bigotry to share their unique talents with the world. Whether they are involved in civil rights, politics, science, technology, sports or music, African American history is full of innovators, even if they are not always right. Here are 25 unrivaled African American pioneers and trailblazers you should know.

. 1 JESSE L. BROWN

  Photo by Jesse L. Brown

When Jesse LeRoy Brown was a teenager, he wrote a letter to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt expressing his disappointment that the African Americans did not fly in the military. While this changed in the Luftwaffe in the early 40s with the Tuskegee Airmen, Brown would breakthrough even in 1

947 this barrier for the Navy. In 1949 he was an officer, and in 1950 the United States was at war in Korea and he was in action. Brown and his unit were soon in the air and completed dangerous missions to eliminate targets and protect troops on the ground. On December 4, 1950, during a mission to cover a naval regiment, Brown's plane was hit – fuel was leaked, he landed on the slope, but was still alive. His wingman Thomas Hudner landed his own plane to reach Brown to help. Although Brown died shortly thereafter due to his wounds, both men were honored by the United States: Brown received a posthumous flying cross medal for valor, while Hudner, who had survived the ordeal, received the Medal of Honor. A naval frigate, the USS (19459008) Jesse L. Brown (19459009), was also built and operated in the 60s and 70s.

At a rally commemorating Brown and Hudner's rescue effort, NAS Jacksonville Commanding Officer Capt. Jeffrey Maclay commented, "When Brown risked his life that day to help a naval regiment, he did not think about their race, and when his passengers saw him in danger, they did not think about the color of the skin, they only knew him was an American in trouble. "

2. JO ANN ROBINSON

  Illustration of a replica bus from Rosa Parks

A replica of the type of bus Rosa Parks was riding on rode on, and Jo Ann Robinson was organizing a boycott.

Justin Sullivan, Getty Images

Jo Ann Robinson is an often overlooked part of the civil rights movement, but her contributions were crucial. Robinson was born in Georgia in 1912 and focused early on education. She began high school in 1934 and later became a teacher at a public school in Macon, Georgia. After receiving her master's degree, she accepted employment as a university professor in Alabama and became socially engaged. In 1950, she finally became president of the Women's Political Council (WPC).

Seeing How African Americans Are Treated in the US Montgomery, Alabama Region, Robinson used her position at the WPC to pressure the mayor of the city, William A. Gale, to disempower public buses without success. After Rosa Parks was arrested on December 1, 1955, Robinson and a group of activists distributed tens of thousands of pamphlets urging a one-day boycott of the bus system. It was a success, and the now-famous boycott of the Montgomery bus system rose quickly and lasted for months with the help of Robinson.

Although the boycotts were finally successful, Robinson was harassed and intimidated by the local police everywhere – including throwing stones through their windows and pouring acid into their car. Finally, the state police were ordered to protect them. When the boycott ended and the buses were deregistered, Robinson moved from Alabama to California to teach. She died in 1992.

3. MARK E. DEAN

  An Old Personal Computer by IMB

For many in the 1980's, IBM computers were probably their first experiences with the technology that would shape the future. Much of the company's success comes from Mark Dean, an engineer who created the company's ISA bus with his work. With this hardware add-on, peripherals such as printers, drives and keyboards can be connected directly to the computer. Surprisingly, he owns three of IBM's original nine PC patents.

His later breakthroughs included work that led to the creation of the color PC monitor and the first gigahertz chip, which allows a machine to calculate a billion calculations per second and is authoritative from today's computer systems to today towards game consoles.

He is still in the industry today, and tells Engadget that he "wants to develop an alternative computing architecture that exploits what we know about neuroscience and brain structures."

. 4 Madam CJ WALKER

  Photo of Madam CJ Walker Products

Craig Barritt, Getty Images for Essence

Known as "the first black women millionaire in America," broke out Madam CJ Walker – neon Sarah Breedlove – who Bank with her own hairline that she developed when she was trying to find a cure for her own hair loss. After experimenting with the products of an African-American businesswoman named Annie Malone, Breedlove decided to become self-employed with a method called "Walker System". This essentially resulted in scalp preparations, lotions and an iron comb, which was developed specifically for the care of black hair.

To create advertising and mystery, the name Madam CJ Walker was made and soon began selling their products across the country, an African-American clientele often ignored by mainstream marketing. Perhaps her many years of accomplishments have been the fact that her beauty empire has helped employ others who make a living selling the Walker system. It is estimated that the number of employees is limited to around 40,000 at a time when it was not uncommon to work as a black woman.

Her success has also brought her community responsibilities, and Walker has also been involved in regular donations to black charities such as the NAACP and the Tuskegee Institute. For a woman who was both a poor orphan and a widow at 20, the Madame Walker empire is a true success story.

. 5 THOMAS L. JENNINGS

  A laundry around 1925.

Chaloner Woods, Getty Images

Thomas L. Jennings is best known as the first African American to receive a patent for his early form in the United States. Dry cleansing called "dry washing ". The patent was granted in 1821, but initially met with resistance on the grounds that at that time all slaveholders rightfully owned the "fruits of slave labor, both manual and intellectual." Jennings, however, was a free man, setting a precedent for all other free African Americans after him. He was now able to earn money with his own innovations.

The money he earned with his invention went to free other members of his family from slavery and pursue various abolitionist concerns.

. 6 DEATH

  Title image for the Death album "... for =" "the =" "whole =" "world =" "to =" "see ="

The way from the pop rock acts of the & # 39; In the 50s and 60s, the punk rock of the late 70s and 80s was bridged by the proto-punk movement. This loose community of raw, under-produced garage rock bands prepared the audience for what was to come in the music industry. This was a genre that replaced the smooth, polished sounds of the past few decades with the grind rhythms of anger, alienation, and posture. But even music lovers with a deep catalog of the proto-punk scene may not know a small band called Death.

The Death Is The Hackney Brothers – David, Bobby, and Dannis – And It Had A Sound That Would Fit It Goes well with bands like The Stooges, The Modern Lovers, and MC5. They were denied success in the 1970's when Clive Davis, president of Columbia Records, received financial support after the band refused to change their name. This stopped the band in their tracks, and after their self-financed record politicians in my eyes they were no longer sold.

Few songs of death had ever been recorded, but they had been recorded Over the years, a cult was built that led to later re-releases of their material and a 2013 produced documentary on the band. They are just being recognized as one of the first recordings of the punk movement.

. 7 BESSIE COLEMAN

  Bessie Coleman's Stamp

When Bessie Coleman was denied the right to fly in the United States, she decided to go to school, learn French and travel to France to obtain her pilot's license. In seven months she received her driver's license and returned to the States in 1921, where she caused the first black pilot in the US a stir.

Coleman soon began appearing on air shows and making stunts for spectator waves. Make sure she uses her celebrity to raise awareness of racial inequality and encourage women of all skin color to fly. Unfortunately, just a few years later, in 1926, as she was preparing for a stunt in Jacksonville, Florida, a wrench was stuck in the corridors of her plane, resulting in an unexpected dive. Coleman wore no seat belt and was thrown off the plane. She died on impact.

. 8 JERRY LAWSON

  A picture of the Fairchild Canal F

A picture of the Fairchild Canal F. complete with the system's innovative cassettes.

Remember the video game cartridges you grew up with? Those that you need to change into your console and occasionally use to make them work? This technology was made possible with the help of Jerry Lawson, senior hardware engineer at Fairchild Semiconductor's Game Department. As a child, Lawson began assembling electronics and building his own radio station in his residential complex. This interest in electronics led him to Fairchild and its emerging video game branch.

Lawson's most important assignment in 1976 was to design the electronics behind the Fairchild Channel F video game console. This system was interesting for a number of reasons – firstly, players could now play against the computer instead of using another participant for the game.

But more important is the fact that he and his team had developed the first video game cartridge that allowed players to switch to different games rather than having them hardwired into the system. The technology already existed in a rough state and was licensed to Fairchild, but Lawson and his team perfected it and made video game cartridges from the 70s to today a ubiquitous part of the industry.

That needs more proof Lawson was an early pioneer in Silicon Valley? In the 70s and 80s he was in the same home computer club as Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs (though obviously he was not impressed with any of them).

. 9 CHRISTOPHER PRIEST

  Stack of Comic Books

iStock.com/deberarr

Longtime comic fans may know the name Christopher Priest from writing Black Panther in the late '90s and early' 2000s Even older people know the name Jim Owsley, whom he used to call in his career. What most people do not know is how groundbreaking his career was, though he was not always due.

Priest joined the Marvel scene as an intern in the late '70s and became a writer in the early' 80s. Working on characters like Spider-Man, Iron Fist and Falcon. Then he became the first African-American editor for a mainstream comic book publication when he was still in his early twenties to handle the company's Spider-Man line.

Throughout his career he has been in and out of high-profile appearances, writing stories for characters like Deadpool, Batman, Conan the Barbarian and so many others. Although personal reasons drove him out of the house early on, he was also one of the original architects of Milestone Comics, a company founded by black designers to give the industry a diverse voice. As the work slowed or he had to take a break from comic strip politics, he retired and became a bus driver in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Fans who are curious about Priest are in luck, though. After years of coming out of the mainstream comics spotlight, he recently led the relaunch of the Deathstroke title of DC Comics, and was featured in both the comic book of Justice and Marvel & # 39 ; s Inhumans at the head of Unique and Future Kings .

10th MARIE VAN BRITTAN BROWN

  Photo of a security camera

iStock.com/temmuzcan

Everything Marie Van Brittan Brown wanted was to feel safe at night, and on the way people around the world Behaving Their Houses Brown lived in Jamaica, Queens, at a time when New York City's crime rate was steadily rising and police were often unable to respond to any emergency. To ensure the safety of the family, Brown, a nurse, and her husband, Albert, an electronics engineer, have created a security system that consists of peepholes, monitors, microphones, door locks, and an emergency button that can contact the police. 19659005] This is referred to as the first modern home security system, and the invention was patented in 1966. Many of these features would become standard in the housekeeping systems of the next decade today.

. 11 FRITZ POLLARD

  Steven Towns, the grandson of Fritz Pollard, stood next to Pollard's Pro Football Hall of Fame bust in 2005.

Steven Towns, Fritz Pollard's grandson, stood next to Pollard's Pro Football Hall of Fame bust in 2005. [19659010] Jonathan Daniel, Getty Images

Fritz Pollard, who was only 5 feet 9 inches tall, did not have the size that typified the success of the grate, yet he managed to break the color barrier of football several times , Before Pollard became a professional, Pollard was an outstanding student in college and became the first black player to play in the Rose Bowl when he visited Brown.

After school, he graduated from military service before moving to the Akron Pros of the American Professional Football League (later NFL) in 1920. In 1921, he was named coach of the team while still playing. The APFA became the NFL in 1922, while Pollard was still coach at Akron, making him the first African American coach of the NFL. He continued until 1926, when the NFL got rid of all black coaches and athletes.

Before leaving the sport, Pollard tried to form only black teams to play against the NFL teams, but never succeeded. Despite his unfortunate departure from the game, Pollard was inducted posthumously into the 2005 Pro Football Hall of Fame.

12th OSCAR MICHEAUX

  Image of an old movie projector.

iStock.com/Kristina Kokhanova

Oscar Micheaux is considered the first African American to make a feature film and is one of the most successful black filmmakers of the early years of the film industry. Micheaux worked for years as a porter before he housed a farm in South Dakota and worked as a writer. One of his books, The Homesteader was of interest to the country's first black film production company, the Lincoln Motion Picture Company.

Instead of taking the offer of the film company, Micheaux, however, opted for the production itself independently to have more control over the project. In his career, he produced more than 40 films, many of which found controversy among the black, white and often the black audience. And although he has never been much praised by contemporaries or film historians, Micheaux's story is a runaway at a time when black filmmakers basically did not exist.

. 13 MOLLY WILLIAMS

  Front FDNY Fire Truck Image

iStock.com/pidjoe

Before the FDNY was ever founded, the city of New York in Molly Williams had its first female firefighter, who also happened to be a slave too currently. It belonged to Benjamin Aymar on Greenwich Street 42 in the early 19th century, and soon she found a part of Oceanus Engine Co. 11, where Aymar volunteered.

Williams was well known around the fire house for records indicating that she was either a cook or a personal assistant to Aymar at the time. In March 1818, however, the city was hit by two catastrophes: a historic blizzard crippled the streets, and a flu outrun many of the volunteer firefighters. Of course, this is precisely the time when a fire alarm would occur.

According to legend, Molly was the only one who could answer the call, and the image of the lonely woman dragging the water pump into the snow has since become a kind of folklore. She was later reportedly adopted as an unofficial volunteer at the Fire Station because she received Volunteer Volunteer No. 11.

LUTHER LINDSAY

  Image of a wrestling ring

iStock.com/Wavebreakmedia

Luther Lindsay went before the days of superstar African American professional wrestlers such as Ernie Ladd, Bobo Brazil and the Junkyard Dog, but his pioneering career helped open the doors to all. Lindsay was an outstanding athlete, and it entailed that the renowned Stu Hart could tap into the Hart Dungeon (his wrestling school) – a feat that earned Hart enough respect, of which he apparently photographed Lindsay in his Wallet until his death.

In the ring, Lindsay was a technician, but culturally he is best known for two moments breaking the barrier. He was the first black wrestler to face a white wrestler in the south when he played Ron White in Texas. And while the National Guard was being fought to ward off riots, the crowd was overwhelming for Lindsay that night. White even said, "We had riots down there, but instead of killing Luther Lindsay, they tried to kill me."

His next cultural achievement came when he was honored to be the first black wrestler to challenge the NWA World Heavyweight Championship when he faced the legendary Lou Thesz in 1953. Lindsay fought the champion for a time limit.

Lindsay died of a heart attack in 1972 during a game, but his pioneering career helped countless black wrestlers become famous over the years.

15th EARL LLOYD

  Picture of Earl Lloyd

In 1950, the first three black players in NBA history were drafted by the League, but by a whim in the game plan (not every team started the same night's season), Earl Lloyd of the Washington Capitols was the first African American to win an NBA game. The other two players were Chuck Cooper of the Boston Celtics and Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton with the New York Knicks.

The stint did not last long as Lloyd was drafted into a fight in Korea after just seven games. Upon his return he played for the Syracuse Nationals and the Detroit Pistons. Later, he served as a scout and assistant coach for the Pistons (a premiere for the NBA). Later, he was named head coach of the team – the fourth black head coach of league history, but the first non-player.

sixteenth DR. SHIRLEY JACKSON

  Shirley Jackson and President Barack Obama

NICHOLAS KAMM, AFP / Getty Images

Much of the technology behind our communication today has been facilitated by advances that Dr. Ing. Shirley Jackson helped shape it. While working at AT & T Bell Laboratories, she helped develop and develop technologies ranging from fiber optics to facsimile machines to caller ID. It's no surprise that Jackson did all of this in her career. As a student, she became the first African American woman to receive a doctorate in physics, and the first to do her PhD in all subjects at MIT. [19659002] 17. MAURICE ASHLEY

  Picture of the chess master Maurice Ashley

Maurice Ashley was born in Jamaica and moved to the Brownsville department of Brooklyn at the age of 12. It would be another two years before he discovered the game that would bring him a unique place in history: chess. Although his first game was not nearly a success, Ashley learned from his mistakes and the peculiarities of his new craft and eventually became the first African American to become the chess grandmaster and the first black player of all time, the US Chess Hall of Fame.

Although chess is a spirited, respectful game, over the years Ashley has heard his share of supplements, though he would keep on going. He told the Chicago Tribune that's why he likes the game because, with chess, "your features speak."

18th ALLISON DAVIS

  Open Research Book

iStock.com/pinkomelet

In the 1940s, the anthropologist dr. William Allison Davis brilliant, sharp and perceptive studies of the breed, which helped to illuminate the African American struggle in the United States. In his studies, Davis noted that race and class acted as "interdisciplinary oppression systems" and helped highlight the inefficiencies of instruments, such as standardized intelligence tests, in the assessment of lower-grade children.

Davis wrote numerous books on these subjects along with his wife and anthropologist Elizabeth Stubbs Davis. In the case of I.Q. Testing led Davis groups that helped cities reject their standard formats, which proved biased.

19th FRAN ROSS

  A Half-Wrapped Oreo

iStock.com/bhofack2

Although writer Fran Ross does not have many productive tasks to offer, she offers insight into her too-short career to anyone who was far ahead of her time. Her only novel, Oreo published in 1974, takes a hard-hitting, satirical look at the race while it's the title Oreo, a young African-American girl undertaking a trip to New York City her white, Jewish father.

Ross combined contemporary themes, absurd humor, and shadows of Theseus' mythological Greek story to create a story that set itself apart from the other, more conventional, social-conscious novels of the time. Oreo did not necessarily succeed in the 1970s, but has since gained some cult.

Ross's writing career did not end there; She also contributed to magazines such as Essence and Playboy and even briefly wrote a comedy for Richard Pryor. Her voice was different from the writers who had written about the race back then, but that does not mean that what Fran Ross had to say was no less profound.

20th WILBUR C. SWEATMAN

  Musician Playing Saxophone

iStock.com/piola666

There are many "firsts" who tick off Wilbur C. Sweatman's CV. He is said to be the first musician to have recorded Scott Joplin's "Maple Leaf Rag" and was one of the first to join the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP). Above all, he was the first African American to win a long-term record deal and possibly record jazz in general.

21st LEWIS LATIMER

  A Light Bulb

iStock.com/Marek Mnich

Born in 1848, Lewis Latimer was the son of parents who fled to Massachusetts after fleeing slavery. After serving in the Civil War, Latimer taught himself to draw, and then invented a number of inventions, including air conditioning and a new bathroom design for railroad cars. He soon began working with Alexander Graham Bell to help him with the drawings that eventually became Bell's patent for the phone.

Most notable, however, was Latimer's own carbon thread patent. Previously, Thomas Edison's incandescent bulbs were operated with a paper filament that would burn out quickly. This carbon filament would last much longer and make the bulb popular for average users. The patent was sold and Latimer patented the process to efficiently produce the filament on a large scale. His electrical and technical know-how led him to supervise the installation of public lights in major cities such as New York, Philadelphia and London.

22nd MARY ANN SHADD CARY

  Mark of Memory of Mary Ann Shadd Cary

Mary Ann Shadd Cary sometimes gets lost under the names of African-American social activists of the 19th century, but their impact is as important as that of everyone else. She was born in Wilmington, Delaware, the daughter of a free African American family. Her father worked for a newspaper called The Liberator which was run by William Lloyd Garrison, a well-known abolitionist who also supported the later women's election movement.

In the years leading up to the Civil War, Cary was a fiery abolitionist and eventually moved to Canada with her brother to Canada after the passage of the Volatile Slave Act to Canada. She founded a newspaper called The Provincial Freeman [1945] which made her the first black newspaper editor in North America.

During the war, she returned to the United States and became a Union recruiting officer in Indiana. And finally, Cary Harvard, where she graduated in law, made her the second black woman in the country ever to do so.

23rd LONNIE G. JOHNSON

  Picture by Lonnie Johnson

You may not know the name Lonnie Johnson, but if you've ever been on a hot summer's day with a group of kids, you definitely (and probably not willingly) felt his Johnson, a former engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the man behind the notorious Super Soaker spray gun.

The idea came to him in 1982 when he shot some pressurized jets of water through a room as he worked on a new heat pump for refrigerators. Johnson realized that this could become a fun spray gun and a new feather in his cap as a future inventor. He said that he had "left the hard scientific stuff behind and [ed] started working on something really fun stuff."

After Winning After receiving a lawsuit in 2013, Johnson received underpaid royalties for his invention and earned him more than $ 72 million from Hasbro. Johnson's work also includes contributions to NASA's Galileo mission with Jupiter and the Cassini probe that investigated Saturn.

24th ALEXANDER MILES

  Portrait of Alexander Miles

Before Alexander Miles invented a system for automatically opening and closing elevator doors, it was up to the people – either the driver himself or an operator – to make sure that the vehicle and the vehicle Shaft doors were available to secure. And guess what? People forgot and accidents happened.

Recognizing the potential for danger as he drove the elevator with his young daughter, Miles developed a system that allowed the lift doors to open and close themselves, eliminating the risk of human error. His design made it so that the cage of the elevator car would trigger a mechanism that would close the door to the shaft by itself.

Nachdem er 1899 nach Chicago gezogen war, gründete er The United Brotherhood, eine Lebensversicherungsgesellschaft für eine afroamerikanische Bevölkerung, die nicht immer von anderen Unternehmen des Marktes garantiert wurde.

25. SHIRLEY CHISHOLM

 Bild von Shirley Chisholm

Hulton Archive, Getty Images

Shirley Chisholm stand nie vor einer Barriere, die sie nicht brechen wollte. Chisholm, eine Lehrerin aus Brooklyn, war die erste afroamerikanische Frau, die auf dem Kongress der Vereinigten Staaten diente und von 1969 bis 1983 im Amt blieb. Als sie den 12. Kongressbezirk von New York vertrat, gründete sie den Congressional Black Caucus und den National Women Political Caucus. und diente im Erziehungs- und Arbeitsausschuss, während sie ihr Büro ausschließlich mit Frauen besetzte.

Und obwohl dies für jeden erfolgreichen Politiker eine Karriere ist, kam Chisholms hochkarätigste Arbeit, als sie sich entschied, die erste Frau zu sein, die am Laufen war für den Präsidenten als Demokraten 1972.

Am 25. Januar 1972 hielt sie vor dem US-Kapitol eine Rede und rief:

"Ich bin nicht der Kandidat des schwarzen Amerikas, obwohl ich schwarz und stolz bin." Ich bin nicht die Kandidatin der Frauenbewegung dieses Landes, obwohl ich eine Frau bin, und darauf bin ich gleichermaßen stolz. Ich bin keine Kandidatin für politische Chefs oder fette Katzen oder besondere Interessen.

hier jetzt wi Die Zusagen vieler namhafter Politiker oder Prominenter oder jeglicher Art von Requisiten. Ich habe nicht die Absicht, Ihnen die müden und klapprigen Klischees anzubieten, die zu lange in unserem politischen Leben akzeptiert wurden. Ich bin der Kandidat des Volkes, und meine Gegenwart vor Ihnen symbolisiert jetzt eine neue Ära in der amerikanischen politischen Geschichte. "

Diese Geschichte lief ursprünglich im Jahr 2018.


Source link