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Top 10 skills that prove that worms are weird

Hate or love it, the world is full of worms. Physically vulnerable, the muddy creatures find security in craziness. Some form cruel alliances while others grow new brains.

Worms can eat without chattering, suppressing other species and enjoying an environment that would kill most other living things. The glistening miracles also have the undivided attention of scientists. Not only can they fertilize other planets, but also a species could be the solution to the global plastic crisis.

10 Earthworms on Mars

There are currently no earthworms exploring the Red Planet. However, in 2017, research has shown that they can thrive on Martian soil. Some Dutch earthworms were collected and placed in a special mixture. Years ago, NASA invented counterfeit Mars sand. This substance is so close to reality that it helps the agency with research controversies, space suits and mining equipment.

To see if earthworms survive and make the planet more fertile, scientists combined the simulated soil with fertilizer and rocket plants. The main concern was that the grains for earthworms could be too hot. Since Mars has less weathering than the earth, the sand tends to be less fine.

For example, earthy silver sand is quartz and is used in horticulture. The pig man should help with this problem. But surprisingly, along with the worms, it made the counterfeit soil a better growth medium than silver sand. The best moment was when scientists discovered that the earthworms had unexpectedly started a family. [1]

9 Zombie Worms with Acid

In 2002 strange worms were discovered near the California coast. Called zombie worms, they like to eat the bones of great sea creatures. They pierce a skeleton until it resembles a Swiss cheese.

Bone-crunching worms may sound normal, but this species has no mouth parts that can gnaw. The creatures also have no digestive system. If zombie worms can not scratch or digest the bones, how do the holes form?

In 2013, the answer proved that living things were actually responsible. Instead of using teeth, they dissolved acid with acid. The skin produces the harmful substance that comes out of proton pumps that resemble those of the human kidneys.

Even the cellular process that forms the acid is almost identical to the cellular mechanism that produces osteoclasts in humans. (Osteoclasts break down bone material.) How the worms digest the dissolved food remains unknown. [2]

8 They kidnap brains

Sometimes ants encounter a tasty goo ball. In the meantime lurking larvae lurk. Once consumed, the larvae transform into a worm that hijacks the ant's brain.

She "blows" the insect into a blade of grass until an animal ingests the ant. After a cow has eaten it, the worm lays eggs. The cow ejects the eggs, which are eaten by snails. The larvae hatch in the snail before being poached as tasty ants for ants.

Although she understood the life cycle of the flatworm, science could not explain how he controlled the behavior of the ant.

In 2018, researchers tore the heads off insects With a miniature version of a CT scan, they recorded the very first snapshots of the takeover. The pictures showed that several flatworms often competed for the same brain.

The winning Fluke used mouth-suckers to pinch into the neural areas controlling the ants' walking and jaws. This may explain why a zombie ant walks up a blade of grass and locks the jaw near the top to effectively hold it for a fleeing cow. [3]

7 Cryogenic superstars

Nematodes are microscopic worms. Usually they wobble in the ground and no one notices them.

In 2018 they blew up the spirit of the world. Okay, maybe not for everyone, but nematodes from Siberia have proven that cryogenic fans are not crazy. Cryogenics involves freezing things including humans for later revival – possibly hundreds of years into the future.

In 2018, the nematodes were found in the Pleistocene permafrost. The creatures had been frozen for 42,000 years. As the researchers thawed the worms, two species began to move. There was not only physical activity, but also the first meal of worms for millennia. [19459011[4]

This was the first "ice rebirth" of a multicellular organism in history. Since this was natural, scientists are still trying to understand how the nematodes survived 42,000 years as popsicles.

6 They form deadly partnerships

When Heterorhabditis Nematodes and Bacteria Photorhabdus are called Luminescens together, no insect is safe. When a grasshopper sneaks past, the roundworm drifts out of the ground and burrows into the host's body.

Once the worm is in the victim, the worm spits bacteria out of its own gut. The poisonous bacteria kill the insect fast. In addition, they release a chemical that prevents the body from decaying. Thus, the worms have weeks of fresh meat and a cozy nursery for nematodes.

In order to prevent larger predators such as birds from eating the dead insect, the bacteria do some tricks. The carcass turns red with one of nature's best known warning colors. It also stinks of almonds, which is another "stay away" signal that birds recognize. The strangest thing about anything is that the body makes an electric blue glow. [5]

The nematodes in turn act as a means of transport for the bacteria. Immediately before the worms leave the insect, the baby nematodes eat some of the bacteria that are later replanted in a new host.

5 Respectful cannibal parents

For the human eye, nematodes all look the same. The microscopic worms are uniformly smaller than sesame seeds and have no individual distinguishing features. Nevertheless, nematodes recognize their own young.

This became clear for the first time when researchers examined the eating habits of the animals. Strangely enough, some nematodes eat each other. Cruel as these cannibals were, they refused to devour their own offspring. When presented with unrelated nematodes, they consumed them. [6]

This mysterious realization defied explanation until 2019. To find out what was going on, scientists turned to a worm called Pristionchus pacificus . . It had a bad habit of hunting other types of nematodes as well as his own.

Analysis of their DNA revealed a gene SELF-1 . For some reason, this gene was definitely the reason why young nematodes were safe near murderer parents. How did the team know that? When they removed SELF-1 the worms ate their children as if there was no tomorrow.

4 The Buttless Wonder

For a long time, scientists wondered how Paracatenula survived. Although there is no mouth, no stomach and no butt, the flatworm thrives at mild temperatures in the seabed. Most species need these properties to eat, process, and dispose of food.

Recently, the answer proved to be a remarkable symbiosis with bacteria called Riegeria . Together, they formed a chemosynthesis cycle where energy was extracted from a chemical process instead of sunlight.

The bacteria produce enough nutrients to maintain the worm. Paracatenula does not need a mouth to harvest this "food" because the bacteria already live in the worm. The organisms also use the worm's waste, eliminating the need for a piston.

Two things made the friendship a special science. Normally, all worms with chemosynthetic bugs have to eat the actual bacteria to benefit. This makes the benevolent bond between Paracatenula and Riegeria unique. In addition, they have been around for 500 million years. [7]

3 They thrive in poison

In 2008, scientists studied the Sulfur Cave in Colorado. Since the cave contained enough hydrogen sulfide to kill a human, they carried respirators and a medical team waited outside. In addition to the deadly gas, the cave also dripped sulfuric acid, which could be burned through clothing.

Surprisingly, a new species of worm lived in the deadly habitat. Findings Limnodrilus sulphurensis in Sulfur Cave classified the creatures as extremophiles. This meant that they thrived in a place where most other animals, beetles and humans would perish.

The blood-red color of the tiny worms was also fascinating. Your hemoglobin binds much more oxygen than other species. This compensates for the low oxygen content of the cave and could lead to a scarlet appearance.

Other bright red worms live near hydrogen sulfide under the sea. The marine worms use bacteria to process the toxin, but the sulfur cavernous worms seem to do so on their own. [8]

2 . Tapeworms were stuffed into the researchers' containers. The 22 species were picked up in Argentina, the United States, New Zealand and Spain. Once bagged, they went to the lab to be tested for regeneration skills.

Incredibly, after some of them had chopped off their heads, eight species of new noggins grew. This included fresh brain. One person showed and regenerated, although the entire front of the body was missed.

In 2019, a deeper analysis destroyed a scientific belief. It was assumed that regeneration in related species began with a common ancestor. This was not the worm of the tapeworm.

Tests found that their common ancestor was a deadbeat when it came to regrowing heads. From the point of view of evolution, each of the eight species has performed spectacularly: they have developed the ability for themselves and independently of each other. [9]

1 The Plastic Solution

In 2017, a scientist and beekeeper noticed parasites in their beehives. She removed the wax worms and temporarily put them in a shopping bag. After completing several beekeeping duties, she noticed that the plastic bag was full of holes. The worms either just chewed through the plastic or actually ate it.

If they had used up the sack, the parasites could become heroes of the worst pollution problem in decades. An unusual test proved that the worms were able to dissolve plastic.

Researchers squeezed a few and smeared their goopy remains over shopping bags. The latter shrank and disappeared. This was a very exciting moment as plastic is known to be difficult to decompose.

In a second experiment, 100 wax worms swallowed 92 mg of polyethylene within 12 hours – 1,400 times faster than all the bacteria used in previous experiments. It is believed that the worms have an enzyme that can degrade beeswax for easier consumption. The same enzyme could dissolve the plastic. If scientists can reproduce the substance, they could be mass-destroyed. [10]

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