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The top 10 voting options in the United States have been suppressed



In the United States, voting enables ordinary people to decide who will run and represent them in their government. As such, it is one of the most protected and attacked rights in the nation.

People with political and economic intentions have often suppressed the right to vote for others. Although the problem seemed to have resolved over time, recent laws show that suppression of voters in the United States is alive and well.

See also: 10 times a single vote changed everything

10 Gallatin County election campaign
1838

From 1789 to 1870, in general were allowed in the United States only white men vote, which made voter repression the law of the country. (Yes, we know that there were only limited exceptions for women and free African Americans.)

But efforts were also made to suppress some voters during this period for white men. The most notable was the battle on Gallatin County election day in 1838. The conflict arose in Missouri over an election to elect a government official.

Before the election, candidate William Peniston made a statement about the local Mormons to the residents of Daviess County. According to Peniston, you lose around 200 non-Mormons in Gallatin on election day to prevent the Mormons from voting if Missourians "vote for men like this [Mormons]".

Around 200 non-Mormons appeared on election day. When a group of 30 Mormons arrived at the polling station, Dick Weldon, one of the men who tried to stop them, said that Mormons in Clay County could not vote. The Mormon Samuel Brown insisted on something else and there was an argument between the two groups.

Reports of this incident indicated that victims were on both sides, but the reports turned out to be wrong after an investigation by the Mormon Church. [1]

9 The 15th Amendment
1870

The 15th Amendment to the US Constitution prevented states from denying the right to vote based on "race, skin color, or previous condition of bondage". This gave former slaves the right to vote. The 15th amendment also limited this right by what it did not say. In particular, the amendment did not address any restrictions that states could impose on these rights. [2]

The lack of restrictions led to Jim Crow laws that were introduced in the form of literacy tests. Poll taxes and other restrictions. These rules have been enshrined in law, and the southern states have written many of them in their new constitutions. Because the states were still able to regulate their elections, the US Supreme Court upheld these discriminatory election laws well into the 20th century.

8 New constitutions cut off black voters
1890–1910

Between 1890 and 1910, 10 of the 11 former Confederate states voted out all black representatives elected during the reconstruction. This was done by oppressing voters and the number of disenfranchised black voters was staggering.

During this period, Louisiana reduced the number of black voters by tens of thousands to just 730, which was less than 0.5 percent of those eligible to vote. A literacy test was commonly used to exclude these men.

Most newly freed slaves were illiterate, so they could not pass the test. Even educated men failed because of the way the tests were written. A Louisiana exam asked questions such as "Draw a line around the number or letter of that sentence" and "Spell backwards, forwards".

The questions were written so that almost nobody could pass them. But if someone has been able to answer the questions correctly, a registrar (white man) has made the final decision. In most states, this meant that no blacks could vote. [3]

7 The 19th Amendment
1920

The most disenfranchised people in the United States have always been women. In many areas of the United States, women were not allowed to participate in federal elections from 1789 to 1920 when the 19th amendment was passed.

Wyoming was the most notable exception since the state granted women more than half of full voting rights a century before the 19th Amendment was adopted. Before Wyoming joined the Union in 1890, the legislature of the territory was determined in a telegram to Congress: "We will stay a hundred years out of the Union instead of entering without women [having the right to vote]."

For the majority of women in the United States was granted the right to vote by the 19th amendment. However, due to the Jim Crow laws, most colored women faced challenges. Other women faced hurdles related to their ethnicity or citizenship. Women who had immigrated to the United States were not always allowed to become citizens, and this was necessary for all voters in America. [4]

6 Citizenship Requirements

In the United States The only people who can vote in federal elections are nationals of the country, but obtaining citizenship is not easy for many people , There is a serious problem with citizenship in the 21st century.

In the past, it was particularly difficult for certain groups, including people from China, to obtain citizenship. Chinese immigrants were not granted the right to apply for citizenship until 1943. In addition to certain conditions, the Native Americans were also denied voting rights until 1924.

After the adoption of the Dawes Act in 1887, Native Americans were allowed to vote. However, they had to leave their tribes, which many did not want. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 repealed the Dawes Act. As a result, any Native American who wanted to vote could do so while remaining a member of their tribes. [5]

5 The 23rd Amendment
1961

Politicians often say that the US Constitution is a perfect document. But it was far from perfect and the framers knew it. Therefore, it can be changed, and this has allowed their successors to fix unforeseen problems.

One such problem concerned Washington, DC. The constitution did not allow districts or territories to have electoral college members. This was not an immediate problem at the beginning of the 19th century, since DC had fewer than 30,000 inhabitants at that time.

However, this meant that anyone living in DC – regardless of gender or race – could not take part in federal elections. Over time it became an increasing problem.

The 23rd amendment resolved the problem in 1961 by granting Washington DC only as many electoral college representatives as the least populous state, namely three. [6] Despite DC With only three representatives, the amendment allowed more than 760,000 Americans to vote in a federal election.

4 The Year Everything Appeared to Change
1965

One of the greatest advances in reducing suppression of US voters was through the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Along with certain decisions of the Supreme Court from 1962 to 1965, the law removed barriers to voting for racist minorities.

It extended these rights to linguistic minorities and enabled citizens who did not speak English to cast their votes with everyone else. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was a great step forward, but it might not have been possible without the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

The Civil Rights Act required that voter registration rules apply to US citizens of all races equally. However, it allowed the jurisdictions to "qualify" the voters unfairly. To counteract this, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 forced individual states to stop using literacy tests and similar requirements to deny US citizens the right to vote. [7]

Despite These Big Steps to Correcting Many Historical Errors In the United States, problems with voter repression continued after 1965.

3 Blocking the phones, not registering and cutting tires
2002-2006

In the 21st century, efforts continued to keep people from voting. These tricks were often aimed at groups that had previously fought for full voting rights. For example, in the state of New Hampshire in 2002, democratic groups in the state offered an election program for people who were unable to vote on election day. These voters are often poor colored people.

Republican officials paid telemarketers to call and hang up the telephone lines for voting on election day. For about 90 minutes, this connected the lines and made it impossible for the Democrats to call potential voters and offer them rides to choose from.

In 2004, Voters Outreach of America collected voter registration cards for thousands, but threw them out for Democrats. Some Democrats who appeared on election day and were expecting a vote could not vote. At the time, Michigan's Republican lawmaker John Pappageorge said: "If we don't suppress the Detroit vote, we will have a hard time in these elections." [8] The Republicans contest this version of the events.

In 2006, four Democratic candidate John Kerry employees were convicted of slashing the tires of 25 vans the Republican Party wanted to use for its campaign program. During the trial, the judge said to the accused, “Suppression of voters has no place in our country. Their crime has robbed some citizens of their right to vote. “

2 Part of the Voting Rights Act is unconstitutional.
2013

Even a law like the 1965 Voting Rights Act may sooner or later violate the law. In 2013, the judges ruled that section 4 (b) of the law was unconstitutional. [9]

This section dealt with the prohibitions on suppressing minority votes using a cover formula. In essence, the law required jurisdictions that previously suppressed voting to be subject to closer scrutiny. This made it impossible to recreate the types of laws that had made the law necessary.

With the repeal of parts of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, states were suddenly able to change their voting rules in a way that was once prohibited. However, these changes had to be resolved by the U.S. Attorney General or a three-judge panel. But an old saying describes what happened almost immediately: "Give a man enough rope and he will hang up."

The fight against suppression of voters was active again in the 21st century and was very real.

1 Gerrymandering and identification requirements
2013 – today

Shortly after the Supreme Court suppressed part of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, states began to change their election rules. This was done in several ways, but the most important were the walking and identification requirements. Both against poor people and against minorities, most of whom were Democrats.

Gerrymandering has long been a problem in the country. Although both parties are to blame, the recent wave of hiking in the United States has been largely undertaken by Republicans to steal districts from their opponents.

Another new set of rules requires certain types of identification that some minorities lack. This may include a valid driver's license that a person may not have if they are not driving. Other changes have made it difficult to vote when a name on one form of identification does not match that on another. This can be the case for a woman whose maiden name differs in her birth certificate and her state ID.

According to the American Civil Liberties Union, 15 percent of Americans who earn less than $ 35,000 have no government-issued photo ID. You cannot vote in some elections. Other changes will end registration on election day or shorten the time for early voting. [10]

About the author: Jonathan is a graphic artist, illustrator and writer. He is a retired soldier and researches and writes on history, science, theology and many other topics.

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