Every March, the clocks "jump" in much of the US, robbing people of a precious hour's sleep. In November, the same watches "fall down", giving them an extra 60 minutes to silence. While people complain about missed alarm clocks, a not so surprising effect of summertime is not expected, the possibility of a longer prison sentence for those who are on a "sleepy Monday" in front of a judge, less expected. Here are 12 surprising effects of summer time: the good, the bad and the scientifically ambiguous.
. 1 Increased spending
In 2016, JP Morgan Chase decided to investigate the economic consequences of summer time. The study of Los Angeles and Phoenix investigated two large cities that are relatively close together and have stable weather. Critical is that Phoenix does not keep summer time while Los Angeles does [PDF].
Their findings included that daily ticket spending per capita in Los Angeles increased 0.9 percent at the beginning of summer time. More surprisingly, the end of summer time was accompanied by a 3.9 percent decrease in per-capita daily spending.
. 2 A higher risk of heart attacks
Many studies have shown that summertime is associated with an increase in heart attacks. One study shows a 24 percent increase in heart attacks on Monday after daylight saving time in a group of Michigan hospitals. According to the University of Michigan, montage is generally bad for heart attacks (researchers believe the stress of starting a new workweek and changes in the sleep-wake cycle are the cause), but summer time makes everything worse. Interestingly, Tuesday after the end of summer time was associated with a 21 percent drop in patients .
. 3 Missed Dates
A 2017 study found that the percentage of missed medical appointments increased significantly after summer time. But as with the risk of heart attack, the missed deadline in fall – at least temporarily.
. 4 More car accidents … Maybe (at least for a few days)
Another area where studies are not as consistent as one would expect is traffic accidents. In 2001, an American study found that there was a significant increase in accidents on Monday after the switch to summer time. A New Zealand study from 2018 confirmed this assessment and found that the number of traffic accidents on the first day of summer time increased by 16 percent. In contrast, a Swedish study found that summer time in this country had no significant impact.
Of course, summer time is more than just the first few days. After summer time starts, there will be more light on the street later in the day. Several studies have shown that this light significantly reduces the accidents, so a study concluded that a full-year summer time would reduce the number of road deaths by 195 a year, found positive effects of summer time on road safety and six studies, both showed negative effects in spring and autumn.
. 5 Longer prison sentences
Researchers often use daylight saving time to study sleep deprivation in the population, as this is a time span when we all wake up one hour before we are used to it. One of these studies specifically focused on judicial punishment in US federal courts. The researchers looked at the "sleepy Monday" (the Monday after the time change) and compared the sentence lengths with other montages. They found that the judges on "sleepy Monday" had five percent longer sentences. But do not think that you can get a lighter set during the fall change; The researchers found no impact on the conviction at this time. However, the researchers point out that this is probably not limited to judges – even managers may be in the mood to impose harsher punishments.
. 6 More mining violations
According to a 1983-2006 study of mining casualties, Monday immediately after the switch to daylight savings time was 5.7 percent more work-related accidents and 68 percent more work-related casualties, indicating that it was after the change there are more serious injuries [PDF]. However, there is no corresponding fall in autumn.
. 7 Fewer koala collisions
A study was conducted on how summertime affects the interaction between humans and animals, in particular on collisions between koala and vehicle
[PDF]. Since koalas are mostly nocturnal, they often cross the street in the evening or at night. By shifting the traffic patterns during times when it was not dark, the researchers found that summertime could "reduce collisions with koalas by 8 percent on weekdays and 11 percent on weekends" (though the difference between weekends and weekdays is not was significant, so the researchers suggested that a slight increase in collisions in the morning diminished the benefit during the weekday). The researchers hope that further studies on human-animal interactions and summer time can be carried out.
Koalas are not the only ones crossing a road that benefits from the summer time. Pedestrians could also be safer. One study found that "there was no significant adverse impact on car accidents in the near term and, in the long run, a decline in pedestrian accidents of 8 to 11 percent … in the weeks after the spring shift to summer time". Meanwhile, another study found that one-year summer time would mean 171 fewer deaths per year.
. 8 Decreased satisfaction with life in general (and increasing use of the word Tired )
Studies in both UK and Germany have shown that life satisfaction deteriorates in the first week after switching to summer time in the spring. One study put the deterioration in Germany even with money. For the entire sample costs were calculated at 213 EUR (about 262 USD), but for full-time employees with relatively inflexible schedules they increased to 332 EUR (408 USD). And for the men in the sample, the transitional costs were 396 euros.
A Facebook analysis examined the "feelings" people shared on the platform. On Monday after summer time began, the word tired increased by 25 percent, with similar increases for "sleepy" and "exhausted" (as well as "wonderful" and "great"). Only in the period from 5 in the morning to 12 in the morning On Monday, consumption of "fatigue" increased by an average of 86 percent, from a 12 percent increase in non-summer Arizona to a 231 percent increase in Delaware. On Thursday, "tired" is back to normal.
. 9 Sleepy children (maybe)
The summer time and school-age studies are surprisingly inconclusive. On the one hand, an article from the year 2009 in Sleep Medicine examined 469 Germans aged 10 to 20 years and divided them into "Larks" (those who go to bed early and wake up early) and "Owls" & # 39; (those who go to bed late and wake up late). They found that after the changeover to DST three weeks after the switchover, the group was sleepier, with owls showing daytime fatigue, suggesting that the tests should not take place in the week following the switch to DST.
A 2017 article In Economics of Education Review however, 22,000 European students were interviewed and it was found that the effect was not statistically significant, at least in low-impact tests.
10th More cyberloafing at work
Another study looked at Google search trends for the Monday before switching to daylight saving time, immediately after conversion. and a week later, with a special focus on sites like Facebook, YouTube and ESPN (ie entertainment sites where people are not likely to google their jobs). They found that 3.1 percent more entertainment sites were searched on Monday after the changeover than on Monday before summer time and 6.4 percent more than the following Monday. Although the researchers warn that they can not be sure that this was all cyberloafing, the fact that there was nothing special about these Mondays meant that this was very likely.
. 11 Mistimed insulin shots
In times of smartphones and connected devices, it seems like the twice-yearly ritual of finding all the watches that change is a thing of the past. That is not necessarily true. In an article from 2014 in the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology the authors pointed out that a watch is easy to miss: insulin pumps. Since most commercial pumps are not GPS enabled and have no internal time change mechanisms, they must be set up manually. The authors of the study discuss an international college student with an insulin pump that came from a country where summer time was not respected. They say it did not cause any significant damage, but it's just to remind you that all check your watches.
12th Higher energy bills
One of the main reasons for summer time is that energy is saved, but the studies were patchy. In 1975, the Department of Transportation published a report on whether a short-lived, one-year DST experiment had paid off [PDF]. They said that "a modest total benefit could be achieved by switching from the historic 6-month summer time system", but warned that these benefits are difficult to isolate. Optimistic, however, they said that summer time could help cut power consumption by 1 percent.
However, as modern researchers have noted, power consumption has since shifted. Most importantly, the changes: Only 46 percent of new family homes completed in 1975 had air conditioning, compared with 93 percent in 2016 [PDF].
Indiana provided a good place to test this change since they had decided in 2006 to observe summer time as a whole state (some counties had already observed summer time). One study concluded that while summertime saves electricity in lighting, it is more than offset by increased heating and cooling demand, which is leading to households in Indiana charging $ 9 million in higher electricity bills be charged per year [PDF]. However, the study only looked at household power consumption, not commercial or industrial consumption.
At about the same time, the Department of Energy also investigated summertime and found that power consumption decreased by about half a percentage point per day during a four-week extension. Finally, Stanton Hadley of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on Live Science said, "I could see the answer either way."
This story originally ran in 2018.