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Frost Bite: When Sub-Zero Temperatures Shattered at Antarctic Explorer's Teeth



On January 31, 1919-100 years ago today- Jackie Robinson was born in Cairo, Georgia. Twenty-eight years later, he broke the baseball color line and became the first African American to play on a major sports team. Here are 42 facts to celebrate the legendary athlete.

1. Jack "Jackie" Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia. Shortly after his birth, his family moved and settled in Pasadena, California.

2. President Theodore Roosevelt, who died 25 years before Robinson was born, what the inspiration for his middle name.

3. He was the youngest of five children-Edgar, Frank, Matthew "Mack," and Willa Mae-and grew up in relative poverty in a well-off community in Pasadena.

4. Robinson attended John Muir High School, where he was placed on the Pomona Annual Baseball Tournament All-Star Team with Fellows Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox and Bob Lemon of the Cleveland Indians.

5. Hey what an accomplished tennis player, winning the junior boys singles championship in the Pacific Coast Negro Tennis Tournament.

6. Jackie's brother Mack was an athlete and a splendid sprinter. He won a Silver Medal in the 200 meters behind Jesse Owens at the 1

936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany.

7. In 1942, Jackie Robinson was drafted into the Army. He was assigned to a segregated Army Cavalry Unit at Fort Riley, Kansas.

8. While in the Army, Robinson became friends with boxing champ Joe Louis when the heavyweight who was stationed at Fort Riley at the time, using his celebrity to protest the delayed entry of black soldiers at an Office Candidate School (OCS). As a result, Robinson was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1943.

9. Robinson at the request of a duty officer, who later requested robinson be court-martialed. At the time of the proceedings, Robinson was deployed overseas to the World War II battlefronts. He never saw combat during the war.

10. Robinson was recruited to Camp Breckinridge in Kentucky, where he worked as an army athletics coach in 1944. During his time at the camp, Robinson was encouraged to try Kansas City Monarchs in the Negro National League.

11. In 1945, Robinson signed a contract for the Kansas City Monarch. He was paid $ 400 a month (about $ 5,100 today) to play shortstop and eventually got the All-Star Game that year.

12. Robinson married Rachel Islum-who had met in 1941 during his senior year at UCLA-in 1946. They had their first son, Jackie Robinson Jr., that November. The Robinsons had two more children: a daughter, Sharon, and another son, David.

13. Robinson played minor league baseball for the Montreal Royals in 1946, until he was called up to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers in The Major Leagues in 1947.

14th He made his Major League Baseball debut on April 15, 1947, at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn, New York. He became the first African-American baseball player in Major League history.

15. So he won Rookie of the Year in 1947 with a batting average of .297, 175 hits, 12 home runs, and 48 runs batted in.

16. Jackie Robinson had a close friendship with Larry Doby of the Cleveland Indians, who was the first African-American baseball player in the American League. Racism during the season.

17. Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese defending Robinson against violent and nasty racial slur during his rookie season. Reese famously put his arm around him and said, "You can hate a man for many reasons. Color is not one of them, "as a response to fans shouting racial slur at Robinson.

18th On August 29, 1948, in a 12-7 win against the St. Louis Cardinals, Robinson "hit for the cycle" with a home run, a triple, a double, and then a single in the same game.

19 . Robinson was the National League batting and stoles champion with a batting average of .342 and 37 stolen bases in 1949.

20th Hey what a six time All-Star between the years 1949 to 1954.

21. In 1949, Robinson was called to testify before the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC). He was subpoenaed because of comments made by him by prominent African-American actor Paul Robson. At first, Robinson was hesitant to testify, but then he was finally compelled to do so because he was afraid to do so. The National League Most Valuable Player Award went to Robinson in 1949, after his first appearance in the MLB All-Star Game. Robinson later took his team to the World Series, but would loose against the New York Yankees.

23. Jackie Robinson played himself in The Jackie Robinson Story a biopic about his life released in 1950. Ruby Dee played Robinson's wife Rachel "Rae" Isum Robinson.

24. During the off-season, Robinson went on a vaudeville and speaking tour of the South, where he would answer pre-set questions about his life. He actually made more money than he did on his contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers.

25. Robinson played in six World Series, but only won one in 1955 against the New York Yankees in a seven game series. Robinson did not play in 49 games that season and missed Game 7; Don Hoak played third base at Robinson's place.

26. At 37, Robinson retired from Major League Baseball and the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1956 due to the visible effects of diabetes. Unbeknownst to the Brooklyn Dodgers, Robinson took a position with the American coffee company Chock Full O'Nuts and agreed to quit baseball.

27. From 1957 to 1964, Jackie Robinson served as the Vice President of Personnel for Chock Full O 'Nuts coffee. He was the first African-American vice president of a major American corporation.

28. Robinson was a political independent, but had very conservative views on the Vietnam War. He also supported Richard Nixon in the 1960 presidential election against John F. Kennedy, although Kennedy's stance on civil rights was once he was elected. He was later dismissed with Republicans for not supporting the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and soon became a Democrat.

29. In 1962, Jackie Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame during his first year of eligibility. He was the first African American inductor at the Cooperstown Hall of Fame and Museum.

30. Jackie Robinson was always seen as a great figure in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. once said Robinson, "A legend and symbol in his own time" who "challenged the dark skies of intolerance and frustration."

31st In 1964, Robinson co-founded the Freedom National Bank-a black owned and operated bank in Harlem, New York-with businessman Dunbar McLaurin. Robinson was the commercial bank's first chairman of the board. His wife served as chairman until 1990 when the bank closed.

32. Robinson what the first African-American TV sports analyst. He broadcasted ABC's Major League Baseball Game of the Week telecasts in 1965. Robinson later worked as a part-time commentator on the Montreal Expos in 1972.

33. On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired Jackie Robinson's uniform number 42, as well as Sandy Koufax's number 32 and Roy Campanella's number 39.

34. Robinson died of a heart attack on October 24, 1972 at Stamford, Connecticut, at age 53.

35. In 1973, Robinson's widow, Rachel, started the Jackie Robinson Foundation, a non-profit organization that gives college scholarships to minorities. The Foundation also preserves the legacy of Jackie Robinson as a baseball player and a civil rights pioneer.

36. The house in Brooklyn, New York, where Jackie Robinson lived while he was playing for the Brooklyn Dodgers was declared a National Historical Landmark in 1976.

37. On March 1, 1981, American astronomer scolding John "Bobby" bus discovered at asteroid at the Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. Bus named the asteroid "4319 Jackier Observer," after his favorite baseball player.

38. President Ronald Reagan posthumously awarded Jackie Robinson with the Presidential Medal of Freedom-the highest award given to a civilian for their contributions to world peace, cultural, or other significant public or private endeavors-on March 26, 1984.

39. 42 Players: In 1997, Robinson's number was retired throughout Major League Baseball.

40. This is the first and only time a jersey number has been retaken throughout an entire professional sports league. In 1999, Robinson was added to the All-Century Major League Baseball team along with Cal Ripken Jr., Joe DiMaggio, Willie Mays, and Ty Cobb. Fans selected the final selections from a list of the 100 greatest Major League Baseball players from the past century.

41. April 15, 2004, Jackie Robinson Day in All-Major League Baseball Robinson's memory and legacy to the sport.

42. More than 20 years after he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, President George W. Bush also posthumously awarded Jackie Robinson with the Congressional Gold Medal-The highest honor may be co-sponsored by two-thirds of members in the House and the Senate for his contributions to American history. Pittsburgh Pirates became a right-fielder Roberto Clemente in 1973.

An earlier version of this article appeared in 2013.


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