Home / Top / Fascinating exoplanets from across the universe

Fascinating exoplanets from across the universe



NASA always looks at the stars, as do many amateur astronomers around the world. While our own solar system only has eight planets (sorry Pluto, we I still love you), it is estimated that there are billions and billions of them in the whole universe. And that includes over 4,000 exoplanets we have confirmed that so far. Some of them are just lifeless rocks in space, but many of them are fascinating in the most imaginable way.

10. The Super Saturn

Saturn has long been the most dramatic planet in our solar system. The rings around Saturn set it apart from the other planets. But among the ring planets, Saturn takes a back seat to exoplanet J1

407b.

The first ring system discovered outside of our solar system, J1407b, was first discovered in 2012. J1407b is actually not an exoplanet at all, but a brown dwarf star. It is surrounded by over 30 rings, and each of these rings has a diameter of several tens of millions of kilometers. Overall, the entire ring system 200 times larger than Saturn. The rings contain enough dust to form a planet the size of the earth.

There is also evidence that there is a planet somewhere in the rings that orbits the dwarf. There are also gaps in the area of ​​the rings, which indicate that exomoons also circle the star. It is as if Saturn itself is the entire solar system with other planets that only circle in the dust rings around it.

9. Ocean Planet

Some scientists have called a water world forty light years from Earth, orbiting a massive star of the Red Dwarfs. Kevin Costner doesn’t have it, but it seems to be a huge steaming world with hot water.

The planet, known as gj 1214b, is 2.7 times the size of the Earth. It also weighs 7 times as much and has a surface temperature of 446 degrees Fahrenheit. Despite the possible presence of all this water, it certainly doesn’t seem to be viable, at least not as we understand it. That said, hydrothermal vents in the Earth’s oceans are literally hotbeds of life, and many of them can withstand temperatures in excess of 700 degrees Fahrenheit.

Scientists believe that the planet may have moved further away from its sun at first, where there may have been plenty of frozen water. As it gradually approached its own sun, it would have warmed up and created the unique planetary atmosphere it currently has. There is speculation that there may be non-existent substances like superfluid water and hot ice.

8. Diamond Planet

Known as 55 cancri e, the planet is twice the size of the Earth and experiences a year in 18 days. It is charred black and unbearably hot with a surface temperature of 4,900 degrees. What attracted scientists the most was the idea that this planet might be diamond.

Early modeling of the interior of the planet suggested that it could consist mainly of things like Diamond and graphite. There is some debate now because the star orbiting the planet has a higher amount of oxygen than carbon. This affects the makeup of 55 cancers and possibly what it could be. All of this is still speculation, of course, since it is very difficult to determine with certainty what the planet is made of if you only analyze data from Earth.

While it’s only a theory, there is still a chance that this exceptionally hot planet is one of the most valuable in the universe.

7. Ruby rain

While the concept of a diamond planet is not too difficult to encase, the weather on HAT-P-7b takes things to a whole new level.

The planet is 1,000 light years from Earth and is 16 times larger than our world. And when the wind starts blowing there, it blows sapphires and rubies. The planet is a gas giant with an extremely volatile weather pattern that regularly causes violent wind storms. The winds shoot around a Mineral called corundum It consists of rubies and sapphires.

If it were not clear, this planet could never be habitable. As a gas giant 16 times larger than Earth, there was simply no place for people to go if we could ever get to such a place. It is also tidal, which means that one side of the planet is always facing its sun and one side is facing away. The sunny side is 2,860 degrees Kelvin for all of me

6. Glass rain

You will find over 64 light years from Earth HD 189733 b, an exoplanet with the worst weather in the universe. Imagine winds reach speeds of 5,400 miles an hour. And when it rains, you are not thrown at water, they are broken glass. Images of the planet show a rich, ocean blue color. But it is not caused by water or oxygen in the atmosphere, but by silicate particles.

If glass rain at 5,400 miles an hour wasn’t bad enough, there’s also evidence that it’s not just raining solid glass on the planet. It also rains molten glass. The temperatures on the giant planet reach over 1,000 K and its mass is 13% higher than that of Jupiter. So there is no chance that life will thrive here.

5. Baby world

The universe is incredibly old, so the opportunity to study new stars and new planets is not easy. Researchers have an unprecedented chance with that Called planet AU Mic b. The neptune-sized planet orbits a young star known as AU Microscopii. The star is surrounded by a field of debris left over from its creation, and the planet appears to be the first to have merged into the field of debris.

The star is about 20 to 30 million years old. Ancient in human terms, but incredibly young in outstanding terms. For example, our sun is 150 times older. The small planet around it rotates around the sun in less than 9 days and weighs 58 times less than the earth. The opportunity to study such a young planet in its formation has never been presented.

4. The ancient world

While finding a very young planet is a difficult task, finding an extremely old world on the other end of the spectrum is also unusual. In the center of the Scorpius constellation is 12,400 light years from Earth a planet 2.5 times the mass of Jupiter PSR B1620-26 b and sometimes either Methusalah or the Genesis planet. It is the oldest known world in the entire universe. It is believed to be 13 billion years old, formed when the universe was only 1 billion years old.

In some ways, the earth itself is 4.5 billion years old. This older planet is about three times as old as Earth and orbits a pair of burned-out stars in a group of 100,000.

3. The dark world

When we think of the darkest parts of space, we obviously first think of a black hole. It turns out that black holes are not the only things that most light can’t escape. The exoplanet TrES-2b is the darkest in the universe. It only reflects 1% of the light it hitsand make it like a shadow in the room.

The planet is about 750 light years from Earth and is twice the size of Jupiter. It orbits a star that is not unlike our own sun. It can reflect less light than charcoal or black acrylic paint. Why the world is so dark is still a mystery. It could be anything due to the absence of certain clouds in the atmosphere that naturally reflect light as we see it on Jupiter, or it could be the presence of various elements that absorb light and not reflect naturally.

While the planet is mostly black, it is not 100%. It actually radiates red, which makes it a little scary when you look at the whole picture.

2. 3 suns

A staple in science fiction is the idea of ​​a planet orbiting multiple suns. The most famous example is probably Tatooine in the war of stars Franchise. While it makes a cool picture in fiction, it’s not as far-fetched as it may seem. It turns out that there are worlds that have multiple suns, not just two. For example, there is a planet that is actually just under 23 light years from Earth has three suns in the daytime sky.

Known as LTT 1445Ab, the planet orbits one of the red dwarf stars in the system while the other two are further away. If you stood on the surface of the world, the sun would rise as usual and in the distance you would even see two smaller red stars in the middle of the day. They were like him with red eyes that always stared at you from the sky.

The world is 1/3 larger than the earth, but also much more massive. Is there always the mass of our planet? It is also incredibly hot on the rocky surface. Not the scorching heat found on some planets, but still and uninhabitable 320 degrees Fahrenheit. Scientists hope to be able to analyze the atmosphere of the world soon to learn more about it.

1. The soccer world

The world is known as WASP-121b has some bizarre, outstanding properties. First of all, it’s a so-called Super Jupiter, a gas giant that is larger than that in our own solar system. The world is so hot that metal and gas can evaporate from iron, and it has been observed that they escape from the atmosphere.

900 light-years from Earth, the planet’s atmosphere reaches 4,600 degrees. UV light from the sun, orbiting and hotter than our sun, is responsible for heating the upper atmosphere and causing these gaseous metals to escape. The proximity to this star has also caused the shape of the planet to warp. Instead of the spheroid we are used to when we think of planets, this is this actually soccer-shaped due to the effects of gravitational tidal forces.

Other items you might like

Want it? Take a second to support Toptenz.net on Patreon!




Source link