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Duolingos “Duocon” for “Black Languages ​​Matter”

Since periods, commas, colons, semicolons, hyphens, hyphens, apostrophes, question marks, exclamation marks, quotation marks, parentheses, parentheses, parentheses, and ellipses are sometimes not enough, consider using some other punctuation marks in your daily communication.

1. Interrobang

You probably already know Interrobang thanks to its excellent nickname and popularity (What have you done!? or You don’t read Mental Floss ?!). Although the combined exclamation mark and question mark can be replaced with one of each, they can also be combined into a single glyph. The Interrobang was invented in 1

962 by advertising specialist Martin Speckter. according to his obituary in The New York Times The interrobang is said to be “the typographical equivalent of a grimace or a shrug. It only applied to rhetoric, said Mr. Speckter, when a writer wanted to convey disbelief. “The name is derived from the Latin word questionwhat “ask” means, and Bang– How printers refer to the exclamation mark.

2. Percontation point or rhetorical question mark

The back question mark was suggested by the 16th century printer Henry Denham as the end of a rhetorical question. According to Lynne Truss in the book Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation“It didn’t catch on.”

3. Irony Mark

According to Keith Houston, author of Shady charactersIt was the British philosopher John Wilkins who first suggested an irony mark that he thought was an inverted exclamation mark.

Next came Alcanter de Brahm, who introduced his own sign of irony (above) in the 19th century, which, according to de Brahm, had “the shape of a whip”. Then, in 1966, French author Hervé Bazin suggested his irony mark, which looks a bit like an exclamation mark with a lowercase U in the middle [PDF]in his book Plumons the birdalong with five other punctuation marks.

4th love point

One of Bazin’s proposed new punctuation marks was the love point. It consisted of two mirrored question marks that formed a heart and divided a point. The intended use, of course, was to denote a declaration of affection or love, as in “Happy Anniversary” [love point]”or” I have warm fuzzies [love point]. “

5th acclamation point

Bazin described the brand as “the stylistic representation of those two little flags that float over the tour bus when a president comes to town”. Acclamation is a “show of goodwill or welcome,” so you could say, “I’m so excited to see you [acclamation point]”or” Viva Las Vegas [acclamation point]. “

6. Point security

Do you need to say something with unwavering conviction? End your explanation with the certainty dot, another design by Bazin that is an exclamation point with a solid line. As Phil Jamieson writes on Proofread Now’s GrammerPhile blog, “This punctuation is best used instead of capitalized.”

7. Doubt point

Another Bazin creation, the point of doubt – which looks a bit like a cross between letters WITH and a question mark – is the opposite of the certainty point and is therefore used to end a sentence with an indication of skepticism.

8. Authority point

Bazin’s point of authority “shadows your sentence” with a reference to expertise, “like a parasol over a sultan”. (“Well, I was there and that’s exactly what happened [authority point]. ”) Likewise, it is used to indicate an order or advice that should be taken seriously as it comes from a voice of authority.

Unfortunately, as Houston writes on the BBC, “Bazin’s creations were doomed from the start. Although his new symbols looked familiar, they were impossible to type on a typewriter. The author himself never used it again Plumons the bird and the playful tone of the book kept other writers from taking it up as well, so that the love, irony, and remainder point are little more than curiosities today. “

9. SarcMark

The SarcMark (short for “sarcasm mark”) looks like a vortex with a point in the middle. Its website states, “Its creator, Douglas Sak, emailed a friend trying to be sarcastic. He noticed that the English language, and perhaps other languages, lacked a punctuation mark to denote sarcasm. “The SarcMark was born – and registered as a trademark – and debuted in 2010. While the SarcMark is not widely used, Saks markets it as” an official, easy-to-use punctuation mark to highlight a sarcastic phrase, phrase, or message “. Because half the fun in sarcasm is pointing to it [SarcMark].

10. Snark mark

This, like the SarcMark, is used to indicate that a sentence should be understood beyond its literal meaning. In contrast to the SarcMark, however, this one is copyright-free and easy to type: it’s just a period of time, followed by a tilde. It was created in 2007 by the typographer Choz Cunningham.

11. Asterism

According to Houston, this triangular star trio “was named after a constellation of stars and was not used until the 1850s to indicate” a note of considerable length that has no relation “.

12. and 13. Exclamation point comma and question comma

According to the Huffington Post, Leonard Storch, Ernst van Haagen, and Sigmund Silber created both the exclamation point and the question point – an exclamation point with a comma for a lower point and a question mark with a comma for a point – respectively. The patent for the brands (which expired in 1995) reads:

“With two new punctuation marks, the question point and the exclamation point … curiosity and exclamation point can be expressed in a written sentence structure so that thoughts can be conveyed more easily and clearly to readers. The new punctuation marks are used as commas in a written sentence between words, but with more feeling or curiosity. This gives the author a wider choice of punctuation methods, e.g. B. to reflect the spoken language more precisely. Furthermore, the new punctuation fits into the scheme of things pretty well, simply filling in a void with no need for explanation. “

The patent closes with the idea of ​​what a reader might “tacitly” notice when seeing the brands for the first time: “Clever [exclamation comma] funny that I’ve never seen one of these before. “

This story has been updated for 2020.

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