The main advantage of the submarine in warfare is camouflage. Their ability to approach a target and hit without detection was originally considered unfair by professional naval officers. Naval officers considered them unfriendly until and during the First World War. Since then, their operations have become more and more furtive and they can operate in all oceans along and within coastal waters and estuaries, unseen and unheard of. Submarines are not limited to enemy shipping, cruise missiles and ballistic missiles allow them to attack targets both on land and at sea.
You can also deliver troops and Secret Service agents, perform covert surveillance, lay mines, and use listening devices to use divers for various missions. They can operate under the polar ice, and many have been built with the ability to dive through the ice cap. Every year it becomes more difficult to recognize and track them. They have become so deadly that fighting submarines is the main task of all navies in the world. Submarines have completed some of the most impressive operations in the history of warfare, even during the Cold War. Here are ten amazing uses of submarines in warfare.
0. Operation Pastorius
In 1942, the German Defense and Navy launched Operation Pastorius with Hitler's direct approval. The operation delivered trained saboteurs, all former US residents, to American shores. They planned to destroy American infrastructure, including train stations and train stations, dams, warehouses, docks and quays, as well as occasional destinations. It was up to German submarine commanders to bring the teams to the United States. Two submarines sailed to the American coast, escaped the submarine patrols of the US Navy and the Coast Guard, and sneaked off on a stone's throw. The commander of the U-201 saw the traffic lights and heard the sounds of the village of Amagansett on Long Island as he deployed the team in his care.
Then he ran aground . When dawn broke, he could see the coast clearly, though he remained undetected as he struggled to free the submarine from the Long Island coast dung. He succeeded, and with the rising sun and eyes, he managed to sail away invisibly. A second submarine that was sent to the Florida coast was similarly successful. The agents were captured after reporting to the FBI. All but two were executed as spies. Operation Pastorius failed, but demonstrated the ability of German submarines to land similar operations in the United States and Canada, relying on the professionalism and skill of their submarine commanders and crews.
9. Entering enemy ports and anchorages
The First World War showed the need to protect fleet anchorages and ports from submarine attacks. The Royal Navy's main fleet anchorage at Scapa Flow in Orkney was protected from submarine nets pulled by fleet tugs across the shipping canals, effectively closing a gate to the port. Marine mines hovered outside the main shipping channels. Block ships blocked less used canals in the harbor. However, the German Navy decided to strike the British fleet when it was at anchor. Submarine U-47 under Gunther Prien attacked the anchorage shortly after midnight on October 14, 1939. He entered the surface of the harbor by carefully sliding past two anchored block ships, only to find that the majority of the British fleet was not there.
He found the World War I HMS Royal Oak a veteran of the Battle of Jutland. Prien fired a volley of three torpedoes, only one of which hit and exploded. Incredibly, the crew of the battleship and the other guard ships and guards in the anchorage did not discover the German submarine. On board Royal Oak the crew assumed that the explosion had occurred in the storage room for combustible forward movements. While the British were inspecting their ship, Prien calmly reloaded his torpedo tubes, fired another volley, and three torpedoes struck the battleship and quickly sank it with a heavy loss of life. Prien escaped on his way to a hero reception in Germany after demonstrating the clout of the modern submarine.
Operation Mincemeat contained the drama and tension of a James Bond story, not surprisingly, since Ian Fleming, Bond's creator, 1941 suggested a similar trick. The goal of the operation? To convince the upcoming German high command that the impending invasion of Sicily was only a feint, with the actual invasion targeting Sardinia and Greece. A recently deceased Welsh vagrant wore an officer’s uniform from the Royal Navy, which contained personal items such as love letters and photos of a fictional friend. Given the identification papers for the fictional William Martin, a Marines officer, he was carrying a sealed briefcase tied to his wrist. There was an "official" correspondence containing the deception intended for the Germans. To take the body to where the Germans would find it, the minced meat planners turned to the Royal Navy, which transported it by submarine.
HMS Seraphs crew were informed that the canister containing the body had been launched top secret weather monitoring device near the Spanish coast. Seraph reached the designated point and performed one of the strangest covert operations ever carried out by a submarine. The ship appeared, the canister was brought on deck, and the entire crew except the officers were ordered below. The officers dropped the body into the water and the screws of the submarine produced a wash that drove it toward the bank. A fisherman found the body that was handed over to the authorities, the cause of death that was found to be drowning, and the body was handed over to the British for burial. The Spanish authorities kept the briefcase with counterfeit papers, took photos and handed the copies over to the defense. Minced meat worked perfectly.
7. Airplane refueling
The Japanese Navy planned bombing raids with Kawanishi H8K flying boats at the beginning of World War II. Planners considered bombing targets in Washington, Oregon, California and the Panama Canal. None of the destinations could be reached from Japan's foremost Pacific bases. The planes had to be refueled to complete the missions. The Japanese Navy had a solution to the problem. The planes would meet with tanker submarines to refuel at a specified time. French Frigate Shoals, an atoll northwest of Hawaii, was chosen as the meeting point. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the mission was changed to monitor repairs at the American base and, if possible, to bother them. The Japanese called the plan Operation K.
American code breakers learned of Operation K and informed senior officers who ignored it. The Japanese carried out the plan only once refuel the planes at French Frigate Shoals with the tanker submarine. Following the demonstration of Japanese ability to refuel planes from submarines, American warships took pickets near the atoll. Japanese tanker submarines were in use during the war, including the supply of oil and fuel to bases threatened by Allied air strikes. Another operation similar to Operation K, which was designed to determine the location of American aircraft carriers, failed at the meeting point in May 1942 due to the increasing care of the U.S. Navy. The Japanese also built large tanker submarines to carry oil from the East Indies to the home islands, but the war ended before they were used on a large scale.
6. Submarines supply submarines again
When World War II began, the German Navy had several supply and refueling ships at sea that were used to maintain their surface robbers and submarines. From 1940 onwards, German shipyards built submarines of the type XIV with which their submarines were to be refueled and refueled at sea so that the latter could remain on patrol longer. The type XIV reduced the periods with the greatest risk for the German submarines when entering or leaving the port. The German submarines called the type XIV milk cows. Dairy cows carried more than just fuel. They supplied torpedoes, lubricants and food, including fresh bread that was baked on board in designated bakeries.
With the exception of anti-aircraft machine guns, dairy cows had no means of defense. Deck guns were missing, and there was room for torpedo tubes in smaller submarines to accommodate refrigerated storage. Dairy cow service was dangerous because the Allies realized that sinking the supply submarines restricted the operation of the attack submarines. The Germans completed 10 Type XIV submarines (out of 24 planned) during the war and all lost through Allied action. The dairy cows were essentially submarine submersibles, although both the XIV type and the submarine that was being replenished had to show up to transfer material. Both were most vulnerable on the surface. Nowadays, submarines use remote-controlled vehicles to exchange materials and personnel while remaining under water.
5. Covert Delivery
In early 1942, American and Filipino forces on Corregidor faced almost everything that was needed for the war. In particular, mechanically fused anti-aircraft missiles to combat high-ranking Japanese bombers were in short supply. USS Trout left Pearl Harbor in January 1942 with 3,500 rounds of 3-inch anti-aircraft ammunition that was stored anywhere on the submarine where space was found. To create more space, only torpedoes were taken on board. Trout delivered the ammunition to Corregidor, docked at night and unloaded the load by hand. At the same time, the submarine picked up torpedoes. Once the cargo was unloaded, it turned out that ballast was needed to maintain the submarine's seaworthiness.
He received ballast, which was also loaded by the crew that passed him hand in hand. Trout received 20 tons of ballast in the form of gold bars and sacks with silver pesos the wealth of the Philippines. The crew passed the gold bars, which weighed about 40 pounds each, together and stowed them wherever they could. The silver pesos arrived at the pier in 630 sacks of 1,000 coins each, each worth about fifty American cents. Shortly before dawn, the submarine left the pier and spent the day at the bottom of Manila Bay. That night, it returned to the pier, loaded additional collateral, checks, official mail and cash, and left the Philippines. She ended her war patrol and sank two Japanese ships while they were loaded with gold and silver. Trout returned to Pearl Harbor in March, where the treasure carried by the submarine was handed over to the Treasury. No coin was missing.
4. Hit and Run Land Raids
American Marines that land on Japanese islands are typically used by landing craft designed and built for this purpose. For the Makin Island Raid in 1942, they were used from submarines. Usually, a submarine offers its crew little freedom of movement, as every available space is crowded with men, equipment and food. For Makin Island, two American submarines, USS Argonaut and USS Nautilus carried slightly more than 200 U.S. Marines, known as Carlson's Raiders. They used them with rubber boats that were powered by outboard motors. During the raid, the submarines supported the Marines with their deck and anti-aircraft guns.
The Japanese attacked by plane and both submarines had to dive in to escape air strikes. Then they evacuated the surviving Marines and wounded them, although 9 were captured by the Japanese, taken to Kwajalein and executed. The Makin Island Raid, an early example of submarine combat troops landing, failed to achieve its primary objectives, information and captivity. But it showed the ability of submarines to deliver combat troops with little or no warning, which came as a complete surprise. Modern submarines of all major navies retained the ability in the 21st century to deploy special forces with special underwater equipment.
3. Supporting Guerrilla Operations
After the American forces surrendered to the Philippines in 1942, Filipino guerrillas continued to operate against Japanese forces throughout the archipelago. In some cases, American troops evaded capture and fought alongside them. To assist them, American submarines supplied supplies of clothing, ammunition, weapons and coordinated plans for air strikes and espionage operations . They also provided assistance to coast guards in the Philippines who reported Japanese movements and monitored troops' activities. In January 1943, the USS Gudgeon delivered 2,000 pounds of supplies and eight American volunteers. The USS Tambor followed in March and delivered supplies and men to Mindinao.
After the mission of Tambor submarines visited the Philippines on average every five weeks. The incursions required considerable skill from the submarines that meandered through the islands in the dark, landing supplies under the noses of the Japanese. They also evacuated the wounded, if possible, and moved guerrilla units around the islands. Four submarines were removed from normal war patrols and designated as guerrilla aid ships. The guerrilla campaign against the Japanese in the Philippines continued until the end of the war. Submarines allowed resistance until the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay.
2. Spying on Communication
American nuclear submarines came into their own during what was known in history as the Cold War. They monitored Soviet submarines, chased them at sea, and avoided detection by the enemy. The American Nuclear Triad's sea stage operated from American missile submarines, from Polaris to Trident II. They also carried out covert spy operations and monitored communications within the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries. One of the most successful, Operation Ivy Bells, involved intercepting submarine communications cables in Soviet territorial waters. Submarines, including USS Parche and USS Halibut took divers to a location along the cable that installed a faucet, which included the ability to record conversations on the line by the Soviets were considered safe.  Ivy Bells participated in the American CIA, NSA and US Navy. The tapped cable ran between the main base of the Soviet Pacific fleet in Petropavloswk and its headquarters in Vladivostok. Submarines regularly visited the tap, got the recordings and replaced them with new tapes. The missions were physically and politically dangerous. The submarines involved were ready to destroy themselves instead of being caught by the Soviets. Ronald Pelton, an analyst with the NSA for over forty years, informed the Soviets of the program after his resignation from the US government. He received $ 5,000 from the Soviets for information about Ivy Bells, which jeopardized the submarines involved in the operation at the time. 1981 Parche visited the location of the tap, but could not find the device. Today it is exhibited in a Russian museum in Moscow.
1. Attacks on land targets
The US Navy fired slightly more than 800 Tomahawk cruise missiles during Operation Iraqi Freedom, about a third of which were launched from submarines in the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea. An American submarine involved in the operation to remove Saddam Hussein from power, USS Louisville participated in Operation Desert Storm in 1991. During Desert Shield / Desert Storm Louisville submerged from Pearl Harbor to the Red Sea – 14,000 miles across the Pacific and Indian Oceans – to launch the first submarine cruise missile attacks in history . Desert Storm demonstrated that submarines can strike from anywhere in the world, while remaining virtually undetected.
Today's submarines collect information, disrupt communication, threaten sea routes, seal the ports and harbors of enemy nations, and deploy troops, agents and special operations teams. They defend themselves against enemy missiles, torpedoes, mines and air strikes. In war games, American submarines with rapid attack demonstrated the ability to take over an entire carrier-based task force on its own and destroy it piece by piece. They can and have circled the submerged globe and traveled under the polar ice from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Few weapons in a nation's arsenal are so versatile, reliable, and lethal to the enemy. The missions they have undertaken include some of the most amazing in history, and there are undoubtedly similar operations around the world right now.
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