The definition of "mysterious" has changed drastically over the centuries. What may have been an astonishing mystery of nature in the 13th century, for example, is now well known, as our understanding of the world has become much better thanks to constant advances in science and technology. That doesn't mean there are no secrets left. There would always be something that our current knowledge cannot explain. In fact, it is important to have things that we still have to figure out in order to grow and move forward as a society.
However, some puzzles not only persist, they seem to become more confusing the more we investigate them. From the mysteriously diverse wildlife in Antarctica to the exact way the sun works: here are ten unsolved puzzles that became even more astonishing the last time we examined them.
See also: Top 1
8 We still don't get the sun all the way
If you think about it, the sun must have been the biggest mysterious thing in the world for an early man. Here you hardly have a sense of the world around you, which is shaped by different types of life, different landscapes and strange weather patterns. Nothing compares to the giant fireball in the sky that rises from one side of the horizon and inserts into the other every day. Is it controlled by a higher authority? Will they turn it off someday? Our ancestors would have faced these questions without anyone answering them.
Of course, our understanding of the sun has improved considerably since that time. Thanks to modern science, we now know that the sun's heat does not come from fire, but from complex nuclear fusion reactions at its core. Even so, the sun still has a lot of puzzles that we may never know the answer to, since it is impossible to go there and read.
This does not mean that we cannot raise the bar to get better observations. This is exactly what the team behind the Parker Solar Probe believed. The probe was the closest we have had to the sun, although the mission, instead of answering questions, raises entirely new ones.
Your observations suggest that things in the sun are much, much more chaotic than we previously thought. First, the probe found that the sun's surface is regularly hit by magnetic waves that are strong enough to temporarily reverse the local magnetic field. More importantly, the waves and solar winds on the sun travel at least twenty times faster than any standard model of the sun we have.
If we could explain this discrepancy and understand exactly what's going on, we would be in a much better place to protect ourselves from harmful sun waves that could eventually kill all of the electricity on Earth. 
7 Life in the Antarctic is surprisingly diverse
When we started scientific research and documentation of all types on Earth, we assumed that life in the more hospitable regions of the world would be more diverse , We worked on the assumption that "hospitable" means the same for everyone – or at least for most organisms, although we gradually found out that this is not the case. Life is much more diverse and thriving in some of the world's most extreme regions, and we still don't understand how.
One of these regions is Antarctica, the only continent that is not permanently inhabited. However, we are not really talking about the surface, but about the sea under the almost always frozen ice sheet.
Mind you, it's one of the most extreme places in the world, so it takes an hour to get dressed for a dive. The diving equipment here is around 200 pounds, as you would die within ten minutes if you tried to dive with normal diving equipment. It's a fair assumption that it's not conducive to any kind of life. However, as a photographer found out on a National Geographic expedition, this isn't the case.
While we always knew that the waters under Antarctica hold their own secrets, nobody thought it was a living ecosystem for plant and animal life. When the photographer went down, he recognized the variety and number of organisms that call this hell hole at home. From spider crabs to corals to starfish, the deep sea of Antarctica is surprisingly full of life, although we don't understand how. The photographer was so fascinated by the rich life on the sea floor that he called it a "lush garden".
This place is also so hostile that it had to deal with nerve damage for seven months after the expedition. 
] 6 Interstellar space is much stranger than expected
It's no news that the universe is a mysterious place beyond the tiny planet we call home. While we're definitely closer to solving some of these puzzles than we were, for example, a hundred years ago, it's still not close enough. There are still a lot of things we don't understand what is out there. This is made worse by the fact that every time we have new technology to get closer to the answers, more questions are asked than before. 19659002] Take Voyager 2, which, together with Voyager 1, is the only time that we have been able to send a piece of our technology into interstellar space. One of the main goals was to understand what is happening beyond the so-called heliosphere – the range of the sun's magnetic field, which protects us from all types of radiation.
However, what we found there does not at all match our calculations. For one thing, the magnetic field beyond the heliosphere is about two to three times as strong as expected. This means that the interstellar particles exert an electromagnetic pressure of more than ten times than we previously thought, which is quite confusing for scientists who need these numbers for a better understanding of the universe. They also found a lot of leaks in the space, which marks the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar space. 
5 Science always finds strange old creatures
Throughout history, the question of where exactly we came from was on everyone's lips. It is a philosophical question for some, but a literal one for scientists. How human life and life in general began physically on Earth is still a great mystery, even though we have made tremendous progress in this area recently. Thanks to better excavation and analysis techniques, we now know a lot about early life on Earth.
Although we have answered many questions about the origins of life on Earth, research teams keep finding things that simply refute everything we think we know. For example, consider the various alien species they found – and still find – in the Canadian Rockies, especially from the Cambrian period. Many of the species could not be classified according to one of our evolution models, which in turn prompted us to rethink the whole thing. 
4 We do not know anything about the oldest animals
Meanwhile, on the one hand, we find completely unknown species, and we are still not closer to the beginning of the Tree of Life Earth, as we see it on the other side. Although our ability to look back in the past has improved significantly in recent years – particularly in the areas of archeology and excavation – choosing the proverbial button of history too far back and you would begin to enter entire ages in the US are dark.
We also always find things that challenge our earlier role models. Research has shown that the animals before the Cambrian period were completely different from the ones below, and we don't understand how. The complex features we see in animals today – no matter how different we all are – are actually the result of an event called a Cambrian explosion, although the animals and plants that previously existed are a complete mystery to us. 
3 The evolution of turtles is (still) a mystery
Turtles occupy an interesting place in the family tree. It is an animal that has successfully freed itself from the tedious yet crucial task of getting a house by simply being born with an animal on its back. If you think it is not easy to trace your evolutionary roots, you are right. Scientists have never had a precise idea of where the turtles actually come from, although our basic understanding of them has certainly come a long way lately.
This understanding was questioned by the recent discovery of a turtle-like animal about 220 million years ago. According to scientists, the animal that should have been at this point in the turtle's family tree should have had a beak and two holes in the back, just like the turtles. If we compare it to other fossils that we found at the time, we will find that they do not agree with this discovery either. 
2 Saturn gets more and more mysterious every time we check it out
With all the discussions about the colonization of space, we forget that unimaginably large parts of the solar system – not to mention the galaxy and beyond – initially are pretty boring. We are sure that it would be fun to visit strange worlds first, but this excitement will soon wear off and we will find that there is not much left to do in space.
Saturn, on the other hand, defies all norms of how boring space should be. Every time we visit Saturn or one of its many moons, we find something completely different that we don't understand.
Take his rings, the more we try to understand them, the more mysterious they become. We know that they are made of ice and stone and, due to the gravity of the 62 moons of Saturn, always have mobile waves to the outside. As some recent results show, they also have waves that move inwards, which is confusing for scientists. They don't know what causes them, although it will become clearer on future expeditions. There is also the fact that its outer ring is much larger than previously thought, according to a recent study. 
1 Math doesn't match the rate of expansion of the universe
If you haven't, we highly recommend reading the story of how we first discovered that the universe is expanding. The discovery, which was too long for the scope of this list, has shown for the first time in human history that everything, everywhere, is always in motion, which is somehow poetic. It still asked many more questions, like the rate of expansion, whether it would do so indefinitely, and what it means to us.
However, according to recent research, not only have we not come closer to discovery. In the answers, we always find things that keep us completely off the path. If some of the recent observations are correct – and there is no reason to believe that this is not the case; after all, they're scientists – calculations of the rate of expansion of the universe keep turning around different values, depending on how we measure them. If you calculate it by examining the afterglow of the big bang, it is a completely different value than that calculated from the cosmic microwave background.
It is against the basic rule of mathematics and the universe that the correct answer to a problem is the same regardless of the method by which you find it. According to some, a completely new kind of science may be required to compensate for the discrepancy, since the true rate of expansion can only be a value if we adhere to our current rules for math and science.