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14 facts about William Tecumseh Sherman

William Tecumseh Sherman seems to be a contradiction – a rough and tough orphan who hated military attractions but became one of the Union's most important generals during the Civil War. From high-level troops, leading forces during the Civil War, to low lows in business failures, it remains a controversial figure to this day. Here are some fascinating facts about William Tecumseh Sherman.

. 1 William Tecumseh Sherman went for his first part of his life after his middle name.

According to a biography [PDF] by Lloyd Lewis, published in 1932, Sherman was given the first name Tecumseh – for the Shawnee chief – at birth and went by that name until he was about 9 or 1

0 years old. In 1829, his father, Charles R. Sherman, judge of the Ohio Supreme Court, died, and his mother, Mary Hoyt Sherman, could not support the children. Family friends helped, and Sherman lived with the upcoming Ohio Senator Thomas Ewing. Lewis says the Ewings visit a priest monthly and teach the children. But one day, the priest learned that Sherman had "never been baptized". After receiving permission from Sherman's mother, the priest asked for Sherman's name. When he heard "Tecumseh," Lewis proclaimed that the priest declared that "he must be named after a saint" and because it was the feast of St. William was, the child William would be baptized.

But Sherman himself wrote in an autobiography: "When I came along on February 8, 1820, my father succeeded in fulfilling his original purpose and called me William Tecumseh." Today, most historians prefer the autobiographical source and agree, that he was born William Tecumseh. At a young age he called himself by his middle name. Family members called him "Cump."

. 2 William Tecumseh Sherman excelled at West Point.

In 1836, Senator Ewing received an appointment for the 16-Sherman, who entered as a cadet at West Point, finished sixth in his class and was, according to his classmates, an exceptional student. The cadet and later Civil War General William Rosecrans recalled Sherman as "one of the brightest and most popular scholarship recipients. "

Sherman's Rec The records of his school achievements were quite different: He later wrote in his memoirs:" I was not considered a good soldier because I was never selected for office, but remained private for the entire four years. Then as now, regularity in dress and form and strict adherence to the rules were the qualifications required for the post, and I suppose I did not fall out with any of them. During my studies, I have always had a respectable reputation among the professors and generally ranked among the best, especially in the fields of drawing, chemistry, mathematics and natural philosophy. My average error per year was about one hundred and fifty, which reduced my senior year from four to six. "

. 3 William Tecumseh Sherman married his foster sister.

Sherman loved Ewings's eldest daughter, Ellen, and often corresponded with her at West Point. After a relatively long advertising for the time, the couple eventually married in 1850, while their father was US Secretary of the Interior. Sherman was 30 and Ellen (whose real name was Eleanor) was 25.

Sherman simply wrote in his memorable, straightforward manner in his memoir: "I was married to Miss Ellen Boyle Ewing, daughter of Hon. Thomas Ewing, Interior Minister. The wedding ceremony was attended by a large and respected company, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, T.H. Benton, President [Zachary] Taylor, and his entire cabinet. "The bride and groom soon moved to St. Louis, Missouri.

. 4 Sherman broke the military to become a banker.

After graduating from West Point, Sherman was assigned to fight in the Second Seminole War and was stationed mainly in the South. He was eventually moved again and served as a largely administrative role during the Mexican-American War in California. (He eventually became one of the few high-ranking officers who did not fight in Mexico during the Civil War.)

Citing his lack of experience, he resigned from his commission in 1853 and set out to build a career in the US private Sector. He became manager of Lucas, Turner & Co., the branch of a St. Louis-based bank in San Francisco. But in 1857, financial difficulties in California forced the closure of the bank. He tried again to work as a manager at a bank of Lucas, Turner & Co. in New York, but the panic of 1857 put an end to that. He then tried to become a lawyer in Kansas until other employment opportunities emerged. (A few years later, thinking about a job in London, he said to his wife, "I think I was the Jonah who blew up San Francisco, and I think my arrival in London will be the signal for to be the downfall of this mighty empire. ")

5. He helped trigger the gold rush in California. Although Sherman failed his career as a banker, Sherman was directly involved in the expansion of California's gold rush.

He helped convince military governor Richard Mason to investigate one of the first gold discoveries in California after two miners brought half an ounce of placer gold into his office.

He then went on a reconnaissance tour with Mason to see if it was there. There was more gold in California where he said, "Stories have brought us fabulous discoveries and spread throughout the country. Everyone was talking about "gold!" Gold !! "Until it takes on the character of a fever. Some of our soldiers began to desert; Citizens prepared trains of wagons and packmules for the mines. We've heard of men who earned fifty, five hundred, and thousands of dollars a day.

Sherman later helped to write a letter Mason had sent to Washington to spread their findings and effectively open California for prospectors.

. 6 The opening shots of the Civil War inspired William Tecumseh Sherman to re-enroll.

Sherman took over in January 1860, thanks to a recommendation from two friends, Braxton Bragg and P.G.T., the post of Headmaster of a Military Academy in Louisiana. Beauregard (who would both serve as officer and general on the Confederate side). He had the job for a year, but resigned and returned to St. Louis after Louisiana resigned from the Union. Sherman dedicated himself to the Union, but he considered the tensions between the South and the North unnecessary, and Lincoln's attempts to fight the secessionists were insignificantly small.

After the Civilian attack on Fort Sumter in South Carolina began effectively in April 1861. In the war, Lincoln called on 75,000 volunteers to campaign for a secessionist campaign. Sherman was initially unconvinced and said, "You might as well try extinguishing the flames of a burning house with a spray gun." But he asked his brother, Senator John Sherman from Ohio, for a Colonel in the Army.

. 7 After his defeat at Bull Run, he almost quit again.

In July 1861, Sherman fought in the devastating first battle on Bull Run, where the Union forces were badly hit, met with Lincoln and told the President he had "an extreme desire to serve in a minor capacity, and by no means to stay in a superior command. " Despite his wish, Sherman received the second command of the Cumberland Army in Kentucky, where he suffered from depression and almost stopped.

He was worried that his forces were not strong enough to attack the Confederates, and with all the divisions he sent to protect various areas, he was even weaker: "That's not it," he said wrote: "I exaggerate the facts. You are as said and the future is as dark as possible. It would be better if a man [of] sanguine spirit were here because I am forced to organize according to my beliefs.

Journalists concerning his movements said: "It was soon whispered that he was suffering from depression. "And that he was" a bundle of nerves, all strung to their highest tension. A headline from Cincinnati Commercial on December 11, 1861 read: "General William T. Sherman Insane" and another paper proclaimed, "General Sherman, who was recently commanded in Kentucky, is considered crazy

On November 8, he was dismissed by his command and finally received three weeks' leave to return to Lancaster, Ohio, where Ellen helped "handle this melancholy madness to which your family belongs is a topic. Sherman was the best friend of Ulysses S. Grant.

Sherman was sent to Cairo, Illinois, where he served as a logistical coordinator for someone who was his confidant and good friend Ulysses S. Grant: Their friendship and military capabilities were tested at the Battle of Shiloh, where Sherman served under Grant and gave a decisive counterattack to the Confederate Army after they had surprised the Union troops in the early morning of 6 April 1862

When the pair Historian Bruce Catton met later in the evening after he had fended off the Confederate attacks, saying, "He finally arrived at Grant at midnight or later, standing under the tree in the heavy rain had his face over his head, his coat collar high around his ears, a faintly glowing lantern in his hand, a cigar between his teeth one looked at him, then, as he later said, "moved," for some wise and sudden instinct, not to talk about withdrawal, he said, "Well, Grant, we had the Devil's Day, right?" Grant said & # 39; Yes & # 39; and his cigar glowed in the dark as he made a quick, hard move, "Yes. Lick it tomorrow. "

. 9 William Tecumseh Sherman changed the rules of war.

The greatest reverence of Sherman's struggle comes from his march on the sea, a month-long campaign in which he was released to use his 60,000 men to disrupt industry, infrastructure and civilian property in Georgia deep behind the enemy lines To obstruct the Confederate economy: "The complete destruction of [Georgia’s] streets, houses and people", he wrote crippling their military resources … I can march and make Georgia howl! "This technique was known as a" hard war. "(He would eventually use this tactic in campaigns against Native American tribes after the war.) A dangerous campaign, Sherman wrote to his superiors, saying," I'm going into the heart of the Confederation and becoming one Leaving a trace that will be recognized in fifty years. "

10. William Tecumseh Sherman was not an abolitionist.

In fact, he was biased: in 1860 he wrote:" All congresses on earth can not give the Negroes anything else he must be subject to the white man, or he must merge or be destroyed, two such races can not live in harmony except as master and slave. "

And although he fought for the union Sherman also rejected the use of black troops in his armies. "I would prefer to have the war of a white man," he said, "with my opinion on negroes and my experience, yes Voru I can not trust them yet … with weapons in dangerous positions. "

According to National Archives:" At the end of the Civil War, about 179,000 blacks (10 percent of the Union Army) served as US Army soldiers and another 19,000 in the Navy … Due to prejudice against them, black units were not used as extensively in combat as they might have been. Nevertheless, the soldiers served in a series of battles, including those at Milliken's Bend and Port Hudson, Louisiana, Nashville, Tennessee, and Petersburg, Va. 16 black soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor.

11. The conditions of Lenient's surrender brought him into great trouble.

A few days after Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, the general met with Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston of Durham, North Carolina to surrender to the Confederate armies who were still struggling to accept Carolinas, Georgia and Florida Sherman, who was not told of the details of other conditions of surrender, wrote his own, which Johnston could agree on, including granting citizenship and Confederate property rights, as long as they laid down their arms and returned home peacefully. [19659004] As the wording of Ex When he got to Washington, there was an immediate reaction. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton said Sherman's indulgence rejected "all the benefits we had gained from the war." Jeff Davis [ing] offered the opportunity to flee with all his money. " Senator William Sprague IV of Rhode Island even called for Sherman's immediate removal of the command.

Johnston finally agreed to a simple military surrender that contained no bourgeois guarantees. Sherman and Johnston became good friends, and the latter even served as a funeral for his former adversary in 1891.

12th William Tecumseh Sherman coined a sobering sentence from the war.

Sherman's blunt assessment of his experiences in the Civil War was summed up in a speech he delivered on June 19, 1879, before graduating from the Michigan Military Academy. He allegedly told the cadets: "War is hell!"

Some quote the speech as saying: "You do not know the terrible aspects of the war, I've gone through two wars and I know, I've seen cities and houses in ashes, I've seen thousands of men lying on the ground, their dead faces looked up to the sky, I tell you, war is hell! "

Others claim Sherman said," There are many boys today who see the war as honorable, but boys, that's all hell "Or" some of you young men I think war is all glamor and glory, but I tell you guys, it's all hell! "

13. He was a lifelong fan of the theater.

In one Stopping in Nashville while pondering with Grant, Sherman and a group of generals, he recorded a local performance of Shakespeare's Hamlet but they did not last long.

Sherman allegedly believed that the actors were on the Had slaughtered their roles so much that he could no longer stand it, and supposedly looked up to his discouragement so the audience could hear them. He left with Grant to find a restaurant serving oysters, but when they finally found one, their meal was cut short due to the military stoppage imposed by the Union.

fourteenth Being elected president was not his thing.

After the war, his name was repeatedly cited as a potential Republican presidential candidate. When the Republican National Convention of 1884 addressed him as a serious potential candidate, he sent them a direct refusal: "I will not accept it if I am nominated, and will not serve if elected." He died of pneumonia in 1891.

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