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10 strange things that make Earth science fascinating

Earth science is a generic term for the disciplines that examine our world. These include geology, meteorology and oceanography, just to name a few.

In these areas, researchers recently found things that should not exist, processes that work if they should not work, and an epic global event that everyone has missed. From NASA confusing the mud to a time when the Earth's geology has inexplicably given up, one can understand why scientists like to take dirt samples.

10 Peles Hair

The eruption of the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii in 2018 had a nice side effect. From the volcano sprouts sprouted, which were so thin and golden that they resembled the hair. In fact, the phenomenon is referred to as "Pele's hair".

Named after the Hawaiian goddess of volcanoes and fire, the filaments are made of glass. They can be very dangerous. The ultra-thin yarns often wind up in the wind and end up in people's food supplies and near cattle ranches.

Each cane also has a sharp point that can damage the soft tissue when swallowed or ingested. The contact with the threads also causes irritation and inflammation. [1]

Pele's hair forms when gas bubbles rise to the surface of lava and pop. The power of the explosion throws the skin of the bladder through the air and expands it. The extracted bubble then turns into a glass thread. With all their grumpy features, the golden strands are bundled in several meters of drift and the result is usually great.

9 The Arctic Craters

Each year, NASA flies in Operation IceBridge across both polar regions to measure changes in ice. The crew, which flew in 2018, found something that had never been seen before. On their journey across the eastern Beaufort Sea they found holes in a thin layer of sea ice.

Seals often break through the ice to breathe or pull themselves onto their surface. Some scientists thought this was the case, but changed their mind when they found the craters were too big. The proposal of a fragmented meteorite attack also fell apart. Pieces of a meteor would have left the holes scattered further.

Another reasonable theory suggested that the warming Arctic water might have caused a buoyancy, but now the holes were too small. There is still a hypothesis – that of whales biting breath holes – but the phenomenon still lacks a detailed explanation. [2]

8 Rare Death Valley Lake

The hottest spot on the planet is aptly named Death Valley. This cork-dried desert stretches through Southern California in Death Valley National Park. The rainfall of each year is barely more than 5 centimeters, and temperatures of up to 57 degrees Celsius leave little moisture.

In 2019 something unusual happened. A huge lake appeared near Salt Creek. The lake was estimated after a storm at about 16 kilometers. The rain spell was not a deluge. There was only about 2.13 inches of rain in the park. This is low compared to the remaining rainfall in the country.

Death Valley is the perfect place for a pop-up lake. The soil of the desert is so dry and compact that it can not absorb water well. This is why a relatively mild storm could deposit a lake in the hottest part of the world. [3]

7 Africa's Ice Stream

About 300 million years ago, southern Africa looked very different. For example, Namibia was a huge glacier landscape, far from today's volcanic desert. One of the most famous features are steep hills called Drumlins.

In 2019, explorers explored northern Namibia. They noticed telltale signs that the drumlins were not just hills, but the remnants of an ice stream. The latter is a river that transports ice from the center of a glacier to its edge.

After analyzing the shape of the landscape and finding deep furrows in the rock, it became clear that a glacier once had a main artery in the area. In fact, this stream was so large that today it could compete with the great ice flows of the Antarctic. It drained the ice cap of southern Africa and flowed into a small ocean 200 kilometers before draining. [4]

This marine area later became Brazil. The discovery also confirmed Africa's position about 300 million years ago – pushing South America across the South Pole.

6 Amazing island mud

In 2015, a submarine volcano pushed a new island to the surface. It broke near Tonga and was never called. NASA scientists landed in 2018 and found that they were not the first life to emerge there. They encountered plants, a barn owl and sooty terns nesting everywhere.

The researchers desperately wanted to explore the third island, which was born in the last 150 years and should last more than a few months. The nameless patch offered the team the opportunity to explore how animals and plants colonize new land. Instead, they came across mud, which was no explanation.

Satellite photos had previously taken the bright material that could not be identified. Once on the ground, it turned out to be a loamy mud. The stuff was exceptionally sticky all over the island and had no clear origins. [19459011[5]

The inexplicable jerk was not the only surprise. Satellite images also showed what dark sandy beaches looked like. When researchers arrived, the "sand" consisted of pea-sized stones that pierced her shoes painfully.

5 The Dragon Aurora

The spectacular auroras of the earth begin with the sun. When the magnetic field lines knot and burst, sunspots are created. The sunspots in turn release charged particles. These particles collide with the solar wind into space.

When such an energy storm strikes the earth, the particles collide with the planet's magnetic field and penetrate the atmosphere to the poles. The breathtaking light bands are the result of the interaction of solar particles with atmospheric molecules of elements such as nitrogen and oxygen.

In early 2019 Iceland experienced an aurora resembling a massive green dragon. Apart from the strange connection to a mythological beast, the light show confused NASA scientists. The dragon broke all the rules of how an Aurora should form and appeared during a sunless time. Although there were no particles or Sternsturm, the fantastic Aurora stayed for days. [6]

4 Mysterious Island Rocks

The island of Anjouan lies between Madagascar and the East African coast. Since the entire island was ejected from a volcano, all the rocks of Anjouan should consist of basalt. In recent years, geologists have wrestled a mystery. The tropical island also had quartzite rocks. As everywhere,

That may sound normal, but could not be more impossible. Volcanoes can not produce quartzite, and the mineral should never be on a volcanic island. Anjouan turns against everything the geology knows. The sheer number of rocks, which were lighter than the dark basalt, deepened the puzzle.

Then the natives put hands on and said that quartzite grazed the mountains of the island. The researchers followed the trail and found the mother mother. It was a hill-sized area and the biggest clue.

The massive lump implied that a piece of quartzite broke off the earth's supercontinent when it was separated millions of years ago. It sank to the bottom of the sea and was pushed back when a volcanic ridge called Anjouan was set up about four million years ago. [7]

3 Strange silence of the earth

Our planet is a loud beetle. It creaks and groans with geological processes. However, in the Palaeo-Proterozoic era (2.2 and 2.3 billion years ago), the earth mysteriously calmed down.

Some scientists believed that this respite never happened. In 2018, however, a study found more evidence that the geology of the world became silent. The researchers studied rocks from China, northern Canada, western Australia and southern Africa.

The samples unanimously supported the proposal that rock formation processes during the Palaeoproterozoic go on vacation. For about 100 million years, the earth remained inactive. The study showed that fewer volcanoes erupted, the tectonic plates barely moved and sedimentation slowed down. [8]

At that time, the earth's earth implications were exceptionally hot and caused much volcanic activity. Nobody knows why it stopped – or why it was restarted. When this happened, volcanoes flared up, and the composition of the continental crust changed and fell into smaller pieces. Whatever happened, the new activity changed the tectonic formation and movement from its old ways to its present behavior.

2 The Mayotte Mystery

In 2018, strange waves roared across the planet. They rang the earth like a bell for more than 20 minutes, but the scientists did not notice. Without a civilian observing a live seismograph, this secret might have gone unnoticed.

The waves started on November 11 near the island of Mayotte near Madagascar. They triggered equipment in several African countries and then traveled to New Zealand, Chile, Canada and Hawaii to ping sensors across the seas.

Seismologists have never seen anything like it. At least the waves have been identified as a type that usually follows after major and secondary waves were first swept away by an underwater eruption. Based on the strength of the Mayotte waves, an outbreak of magnitude 5 should have taken place on November 11th. This was never the case.

In addition, earthquakes release waves with multiple frequencies. The Mayotte waves had a signal and bizarre repeated every 17 seconds. Despite complex theories of quiet earthquakes and collapsing magma chambers, the global ring remains unanswered. [9]

1 The Blobs

Deep in the earth is a secret that nobody understands. Thousands of kilometers below the surface are two of the planet's largest structures. Their technical name is "large low-speed provinces," which is why scientists call them "blobs."

One hangs deep under Africa and the other is far below the Pacific Ocean. Geophysicists first discovered the anomalies in the 1970s, but they are poorly understood. Their age, their creation and their purpose are perfect secrets. Scholars have also found no consensus about their density and their impact on geological processes. [19459011[10]

However, few believe that the structures are epic. The blobs are hot pressurized rock 100 times higher than Mount Everest. A description puts the scale in the right perspective: If they were to stand on the surface of the planet, the International Space Station would have to change course to avoid being hit.

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