To prove guilt or innocence is a difficult thing today. Innocent people are often suspected of crimes they did not commit. Some people have the misfortune not only to be suspected, but also to be tried, convicted and executed for crimes whose innocence was later proven.
In some cases, the miscarriage of justice was caused by unfortunate events. In other cases, blame lies with the neglect or deliberate interference of the police and the judiciary whose job it was to ensure that the suspect was granted a fair trial. Here are ten people who definitely did not do it.
10 Harry Gleeson
Moll McCarthy was assassinated in 1940 in County Tipperary, Ireland. Moll was known in town as a prostitute. She had had seven children in the course of her business and had named them all after her fathers, to the embarrassment of the city as a whole and certain gentlemen in particular. At the time, there was some concern that Moll could have been an informant against the IRA, either voluntarily or because of its indiscrete nature.
Harry Gleeson spotted Moll's body in his uncle's field. She was shot twice in the face. At the interrogation, the farmer denied knowing who he was, perhaps for the simple reason of not being associated with the notorious woman. The lie, however, put him in suspicion and he was charged with her murder. [19459011
It was thought that he had conceived and killed one of their children to prevent them from speaking. There was no evidence, however. Witnesses who were able to refute this claim came forward but were never brought to justice. The police also kept evidence that had relieved Gleeson, and the medical evidence of where they existed was flawed.
The only thing that linked Harry Gleeson to Moll McCarthy was his discovery of her body. And the only damned evidence against him was the fact that he had lied, that he had known a well-known prostitute who might have been an IRA informer and was found murdered and disfigured on his uncle's field, which was completely understandable at first glance appears.
Harry Gleeson was convicted and executed in 1941. He was officially pardoned in 2015 by Irish President Michael Higgins.
9 John Perry
In 1660, steward William Harrison went to Campden, England, on foot to collect rents, as was his normal routine. He never returned. After a while, his servant John Perry and his son went in search of their master, but the only trace they could find was the employer's hat, shirt, and collar, which Perry had allegedly found found in the street. The objects were stained with blood.
John Perry was arrested for murdering Harrison. If we are questioned, we say something energetically, he accuses his own mother and brother of being the real killers. They said they killed William Harrison for his money. At the trial, John Perry admitted that the idea of killing Harrison had been his own, which also made him guilty. He went into great detail about who had done the killing and what each plotter had said and done.
The judge, however, refused to convict her without murder. They were charged with robbery, but a pardon was also offered. However, not only was John Perry on his own fault, but also his mother and brother. Finally, a second judge ruled that they could be charged without a corpse, and according to Perry's claim, the entire Perry family was found guilty and hanged in 1661.
John Perry was last hung up after being forced to watch his executions, mother and brother, and his body was ordered to stay at the gallows until it rotten.
That would have been all if in 1662 the "victim" had not returned. William Harrison told a wild story of having been attacked by pirates who robbed him, shackled him and thrown him into a pit. Then, inexplicably, they came back for him, gave him money, rode him 260 miles to the coast, and sold the 70-year-old arthritic master into slavery on a ship. If you could believe it (which you really could not), he was kidnapped by Turkish pirates, but a doctor rescued him and had him run a distillery until indefinite friends found him by accident and paid his passage home.
His story was obviously a complete invention, but wherever he had been and whatever he had done, he was certainly not murdered on a street in Campden by John Perry or any of his unfortunate family members. [19459011
8 Timothy Evans
Timothy Evans moved in 1948 with his wife Beryl and her daughter to a top-floor apartment on the 10th Rillington Place, Notting Hill, London. The ground floor was inhabited by a man named John Christie.
Although Timothy Evans was diligent, he was a man of limited intelligence and virtually illiterate. It was hard for him to feed his family, and when his wife announced that she was pregnant again, it was decided that she would do abortions, even though it was illegal.
On November 30, 1949, Evans went to the police. After some confusion in his story, he finally told them that his neighbor had committed abortion on his wife and that she died as a result. He also said that his daughter was given to an unknown person and that Christie refuses to see her. When the police ransacked the house, they found the bodies of his wife and daughter barely hidden in the washhouse. Both had been strangled.
Evans is said to have confessed to killing his wife, although it was later proved that most of his confession was written by the police and submitted to the illiterate for signature. There was no forensic evidence. Evans insisted that John Christie had committed the crime. The conviction of Timothy Evans, however, took only 40 minutes, and on 9 March 1950 he was hanged.
Three years later, at Rillington Place 10, police discovered a number of other bodies. There was even the thigh of a woman who was obviously holding up the garden fence of John Christie. By the time the police ransacked the place, some of those bodies had certainly been on the property, but they never seemed to go beyond the washhouse.
John Christie was hanged himself for murdering at least eight people in July 1953. In 1966, the completely innocent Timothy Evans finally received a royal pardon. 
7 Derek Bentley
Derek Bentley had the mental age of an eleven-year-old man.
In November 1952, 19-year-old Bentley and 16-year-old friend Christopher Craig broke into a candy store. When the alarm was triggered and the police arrived, the two young men tried to hide on the roof. Moments later, DC Frederick Fairfax climbed onto the roof, pursued her, and grabbed Bentley.
Bentley broke free, and while he was running, he is said to have called the deadly words, "Let him have it." Christopher Craig fired wildly with his weapon, struck Fairfax and wounded him. His wounds, however, were not essential as he was soon on his feet again. DC Fairfax recaptured Bentley and "flattened" it in one fell swoop 
About 15 minutes after Bentley was arrested, PC Sidney Miles pushed open the door to the roof, where Christopher opened Craig was still in his mouth, whereupon Craig shot him in the head. Craig continued firing on the police until he ran out of bullets. Then he jumped off the roof and broke his spine in the fall.
At the trial, the prosecution alleged that Bentley had angered Craig with the slogan "Let them have it," while the defense claimed he wanted Craig to give up the gun.
Both men were convicted of murder, although Bentley was under arrest at the time of the shooting and was no longer on the roof. Since Craig was only 16 years old, he could not be executed. Derek Bentley was hanged in January 1953 and received a limited pardon in 1993.
6 Joe Arridy
Joe Arridy had the mental faculties of a five-year and an IQ of forty-six. His greatest joy was playing with his toy trains and eating ice cream. In 1936, Arridy allegedly confessed to the brutal rape and murder of 15-year-old Dorothy Drain and the rape and attempted murder of her 12-year-old sister. He is said to have beaten her while sleeping with a hatchet.  
It is certain that Joe would not have understood what he confessed. He could not have read the signed statement. And it is certain that he was mentally incapable of the murders. Before his execution, however, he was held for three years on death row, where he preferred to play with his move. His last meal was ice cream.
Joe Arridy was executed at the age of 23. A friend of the girl's father, Frank Aguilar, confessed the crime later. He had never met Joe Arridy before.
5 George Stinney
In 1944, George Stinney became the youngest investigator executed in the United States in the 20th century. Stinney was convicted of murdering two white girls in South Carolina. The entire study should have lasted less than three hours and contain no evidence and almost no testimonies. He was convicted by the pure white jury after only ten minutes of consultation.
The 14-year-old was prevented from visiting his family, friends or lawyers during his interrogation, and it is alleged that he was so scared that he said everything the police had asked him to do. There was no evidence linking him to the dead girls except that Stinney and his sister were the last to see the girls alive.
Stinney was arrested, tried and executed within three months. He was too small to fit in the electric chair, and he had to sit on a Bible to put the straps around him. His sister and the rest of his family went tirelessly to clear his name. 
In 2014, a judge closed the conviction and stated that George Stinney had denied a fair trial.
In 1949, a movie manager and assistant were killed in a robbery in Liverpool when a man burst in the director's office when the revenue was counted and shot them dead. The shooter fled and left the money untouched. The police were under great pressure to clarify the crime, and had already interviewed 65,000 men when they received an anonymous letter with a finger on George Kelly as a murderer and another man, Charles Connolly, as a lookout.
Two men were brought to trial together, and the jury did not succeed. The two men were then separately brought to justice, and Charles Connolly pleaded guilty to robbery and conspiracy. George Kelly continued to deny any involvement in the crime, but was convicted of double murder and hanged in 1950.
In 2003, the sentences of both men were reversed and the original verdict was classified as "unsafe." The jury was never told that another man, Donald Johnson, confessed to committing the crime. He had been arrested for the murders, but released after the anonymous letter in which Kelly and Connolly had been implicated. The evidence for the confession was not discovered until 1991, when a member of the public investigating the case obtained access to the police records and found the statement about the confession. It was suspected that the police deliberately veiled this evidence. 
3 Thomas And Meeks Griffin
In April 1913, 73-year-old Confederate John Q. Lewis was a Civil War veteran who was assassinated in his own home in South Carolina. Lewis was known to have a relationship with a married black woman, and her husband was immediately suspected. However, in order to avoid scandals, it is alleged that the police did not thoroughly investigate the adultery, although officials questioned the husband, he was found with his bags packed and was wearing bloodstained trousers.
Another man was arrested in connection with the crime. At first, he claimed to act as a lookout while the husband killed John Lewis. Later, possibly after conviction by the police, Stevenson instead referred Thomas and Meeks Griffin with the promise of a reduced prison sentence.
The Griffin brothers were the richest black men in Chester County. They owned 138 acres of land and were popular in the community. It is believed that they were involved because they could afford a real defender, and because they were innocent, it was assumed that they would be acquitted. [19459011
However, the trial judge was told to be hostile to the Griffin brothers, possibly because of their elevated position, wealth, and race. After a most biased trial, the brothers were found guilty and executed quickly.
They were pardoned in 2009, the first posthumous pardon ever granted in South Carolina.
2 Teng Xingshan
In 1989, Teng Xingshan was executed for the murder of Shi Xiaorong. Xiaorong had disappeared a month before finding a broken body in a river in China and was identified as a missing woman.
The dismembered corpse is said to have been cut "professionally," and since Teng Xingshan was a butcher, he has been suspected. It was further claimed that the two had a sexual relationship and Teng suspected that Shi was stolen from him.  At his trial, Teng Xingshan said the crime was "on his own initiative."
This is strange when Shi Xiaorong returned to her hometown four years after Teng's execution. She said she was cheated and sold as a "woman" in another province. In 2005, she called on the authorities to lift Teng's sentence. When asked about her relationship with Teng, she replied that she had never met him. Teng was declared innocent in 2006.
1 Myles Joyce
In 1882, John Joyce, his mother, wife and two children were brutally murdered in their home in Ireland.
Maolra Seoighe ("Myles Joyce" in English) was one of ten men indicted for the murders. The men were all tried, but two made a deal to "identify" the perpetrators. Myles Joyce (no relation to the victims) was one of the men involved.
Joyce spoke only Irish, but did not receive the services of an interpreter during his trial and never understood a word to the verdict that was translated from English into Irish to his advantage. He is said to have protested against his innocence, but in a language the court could not understand. The jury considered the evidence for only six minutes before returning their guilty verdict.
Two of the other convicts admitted their guilt, stating that Joyce had not been involved in the crime, but it was too late to finish the ruling execution. Myles Joyce was hanged in December 1882. When he was put on the scaffold, of course, Joyce said in Irish: "I will soon see Jesus Christ – he too was crucified cruelly."
The Irish Parliament recognized that a miscarriage of justice had taken place and Myles Joyce was unconditionally pardoned in 2018. 
Ward Hazell is a writer who travels, and an occasional travel writer.