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10 of the greatest engineering achievements in history

The history of civilization is full of examples of how humanity is improving the world in which it lives. With ingenuity, imagination and hard work, humanity has spanned rivers, built roads, built cities and created the infrastructure to connect them. Some projects took centuries; others were terminated with readiness, driven by immediate needs. Many were treated by contemporaries with ridicule, who considered the vision of their advocates to be insane. Some – the Panama Canal is an example for many – were only completed after a spectacular and expensive failure in earlier attempts. Still others have been driven by competition between nations and empires.

Spectacular engineering was preceded by the term engineer. The master builders and visionaries have evolved over the centuries by mathematicians (it seemed spontaneous) around the world. The Great Wall in China, the pyramids of Mayan and Aztec cultures, the cities of the ancient world were all executed by engineers, although the builders and designers did not know they were engineers. Over the centuries, technical achievements have been directed towards the worship of gods and heroes, the enhancement of social life and easy to celebrate the spirit of humanity. Here are 1

0 of the greatest engineering achievements in history.

10th The Roman Water Distribution System

Three centuries before the beginning of the general era, the Roman Republic, later the Empire, distributed water in their territories by means of a sewer system, canals, pipes, reservoirs, standing tanks, and aqueducts. Using gravity, the Romans distributed fresh water to towns and communities as well as to mines and farms. Some of the aqueducts are still standing, architectural wonders built by workers under the supervision of surveyors and builders. At the end of the third century, the city of Rome was served by eleven separate aqueducts that distributed water throughout the city and, in the case of the wealthier citizens, directly into their homes. The poorer inhabitants resorted to public fountains and baths.

The empire was also supplied with water systems operated by both local governments and the state. Natural sources were the preferred sources of water. Relief was introduced by law on both sides of the canal's canal. The waterways were generously supplied with inspection points, today called manholes, and the water was routinely checked for purity. Lead pipes were used in some sections, although the use of ceramic pipes was preferred, and sections of the aqueducts made of concrete were lined with bricks to prevent erosion and to filter the water. The system was so well designed and built that almost 20 centuries after its construction, sections were still being used for the distribution of fresh water.

. 9 The Hagia Sophia Cathedral

The Hagia Sophia Cathedral, built as a Christian church and later converted into an Islamic mosque, is now a museum and icon of Turkey. Originally built in the sixth century, it has survived rioting, looting by conquerors, earthquakes, fire and the ravages of time. It was built mainly of masonry and is easily recognizable by its corner minarets and massive dome. It has been built and rebuilt several times over the years and is still a symbol of Byzantine architecture. Hagia Sophia was the largest cathedral in the world for over 1000 years. His design was revolutionary in his day.

The huge dome sits on a square pedestal supported by four triangular pendentives in the corners of the square. The pendentives carry the weight of the dome and direct it downwards and not outwards, as dictated by the shape of the dome. Although the dome collapsed on more than one occasion and was extended by ribs during the conversion, which contributed to the distribution of weight on the load-bearing walls, each conversion strengthened them and improved the overall structure of the building. The Hagia Sophia is a museum of both the Christian and the Islamic faith as well as the Byzantine Empire and the Crusades. It remains one of the world's largest brick buildings in the 21st century (19659009) .

. 8 The Leshan Buddha

The Great Buddha of Leshan was carved out of a stone and completed in the early ninth century. He is over 230 feet tall and has a width of 92 feet over his shoulders. It is the tallest Buddha statue in the world carved from the sandstone of a cliff overlooking the junction of the Min and Dadu rivers in Sichuan. Normally, sandstone would be easily removed by the rainwater that has fallen on the statue over the centuries. That it is not a tribute to the ingenious technology that controls the flow of water through and behind the statue that has protected it since its completion by 803 CE.

The Leshan Buddha contains over 1,000 sinuous topknots. of stone, which are placed on the head of the statue. They were designed to collect rainwater and direct it to a system of drains and drainpipes that allows the water to flow through the statue's head and arms, leaving behind the back, behind the stone clothing and away from the statue, in front of the waterfall to protect the effects of erosion. The system was installed as part of the original carving. Originally protected by a wooden house that was destroyed by the Mongols, the statue has been exposed to the elements for seven centuries. Their drainage system protects them from erosion. The biggest threat to the statue today is the heavily polluted air in the area, which its designers could not have guessed.

. 7 The Erie Canal

Between the Hudson River and Lake Erie, the altitude rises about 600 feet. Canal locks of the day (1800) were able to raise or lower boats by 12 feet, which meant that at least 50 locks were needed to build a channel connecting the Hudson with the Great Lakes. President Thomas Jefferson called the project "… madness". Dewitt Clinton, the governor of New York, disagreed and supported the project, which led to the critics calling the channel "Dewitt's Ditch" and other, less mild pejorative. Clinton eagerly pursued the project and oversaw the creation of a 360-mile waterway across the state of New York connecting the upper-midwest with New York City. The cities of Buffalo, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio flourished after the completion of the canal in 1825.

The technical requirements of the canal included removing the earth with animal power and water power (using aqueducts to divert the flow of water)) and blasting gunpowder through limestone. None of the planners and construction workers of the canal was a professional engineer. Instead, they were math teachers, judges, and laymen who learned during the class. The work was provided by increased immigration, mainly from Ireland and the German Länder. When completed in 1825, the canal was considered a technical masterpiece, one of the longest canals in the world. The heyday of the Erie Canal was relatively short due to the development of the railways, but led to the growth of New York Harbor and spurred the construction of competing canals in other eastern states.

. 6 The Brooklyn Bridge

The Brooklyn Bridge was originally designed by John Roebling, who built suspension bridges with shorter spans across the Ohio River and elsewhere. The project in Brooklyn and Manhattan resulted in an accident that cost Roebling his life, and the technical challenges were transferred to his son, Washington Roebling. Washington was hit early in the construction phase by the bends and had to monitor the project from his Manhattan apartment. The technical challenges were difficult. Wooden caissons were sunk at the bottom of the East River, and men pushed the river bottom until the caissons reached the bottom. In the case of the East Tower that supported the bridge, this was never the case. The tower rests on sand until today.

The completion of the project lasted 14 years, from 1869 to 1883. The structure, often referred to as a suspension bridge, is in reality a hybrid suspension / rope bridge, its load through wire ropes to the towers and from there to the rock on the Brooklyn Side and the sand is transferred over the rocks on the Manhattan side. In the 21st Century st it carries six lanes as well as bicycles and pedestrians, although it does not accommodate either rail or commercial vehicles. At the time of its completion, it was considered a world technical masterpiece spanning nearly six thousand feet, connecting the formerly separate cities of Brooklyn and New York.

. 5 The Eiffel Tower

Gustave Eiffel built the iconic symbol of Paris – and indeed of all of France – as a gateway to the 1889 World's Fair. Contrary to popular belief, Eiffel did not design the tower, but bought the patent rights for the design of its employees' engineers. Subsequently, he signed a contract for the construction of the tower and not as his company. Later, he founded another company, which handled the management of the tower and the resulting income. The design of the tower was controversial from the beginning. Artists and engineers complained about the lack of aesthetic value. The French writer Guy de Maupassant is said to have eaten in the tower after his completion because he is the only place in Paris from which the tower can not be seen.

The iron works were delivered with holes for connection to the site. Screws were pre-drilled, and during assembly, the tower was brought into proper alignment by the use of hydraulic lifting blocks near the four feet of the structure. Creepers climbed on the legs of the tower to set up each succeeding level. The tower was declared completed in March 1889, at that time the tallest structure in the world. It reached the height of 1,063 feet and remains the tallest building in Paris. The tower was supposed to have been dismantled in 1909 under the terms of the original contract, but its utility as a radio transmitter gained a longer lifespan. At the end of the twentieth century, the idea of ​​dismantling the tower was unthinkable.

. 4 The Panama Canal

The 51-mile intersection over the Panama isthmus was a dream for many decades before the French began construction in 1881. During the construction of the American Transcontinental Railroad, the equipment for use in the Sierras was shipped to the East Coast of the United States to Panama, transposed via the Isthmus and then shipped to California. Engineers spent years studying the construction of a canal before the French tried to complete a canal, but the technical difficulties associated with climate and politics combined to hinder their efforts after more than two decades. The United States entered where the French failed and in 1914, after another ten years of work, completed the canal.

The canal actually consists of two canals that are connected at both ends to an artificial lake, the Gatun Lake, which is 85 feet above sea level. Sluices on both channels raise or lower ships to or from the bottom of the lake, allowing them to cross from the Atlantic to the Pacific or vice versa. The canal allows ships to move from one ocean to another in less than twelve hours. It was the technical decision to abandon the French Sea's preferred design of the sea-level canal and instead to build the Gatun Lake by building the Gatun Dam (then the largest dam in the world) and installing locks to raise and lower ships, that will enable Americans to succeed in completing the dam, which forever changed the shipping lanes and maritime traffic.

. 3 The Channel Tunnel

The British Isles were not connected to the European continent for centuries. This situation was viewed by many Britons as critical to their national security. There were numerous proposals for a tunnel below the canal, but the opposition in England and France prevented serious efforts. Attempts to build tunnels for traffic were started and stopped in the middle to late 20th century . After the usual political and professional maneuvers between governments, corporations, and financiers, work began on tunnels for high-speed trains, already nicknamed as Chunnel. 19659005] The tunnel was built from both sides using TBMS (TBMS) to approach each other. The machines drilled mainly through chalk, although the different geology of the French coast caused some difficulties. Both the French and the English used the distant spoils for land reclamation projects. The tunnels were lined with cast iron and reinforced concrete. After its completion, the tunnel supplied the passing trains over overhead lines with electricity. The tunnel opened in 1994 and today allows a ride from London to Paris in just over two hours. The tunnel also makes it possible to import freight transport, which supplies goods produced throughout Europe, to the United Kingdom and British goods to reach the continents.

. 2 Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world (2019), is a mixed-use skyscraper in Dubai, completed in 2009. The building was designed by the same Chicago firm that designed the Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower). In this city, the same design principle of bundled pipes is used to support the weight of the building. The tubular construction allowed significantly less steel for construction, with most of the building being made of reinforced concrete. Alone the tower, which is mostly decorative, would designate it as the tallest building in Europe [11]

which was built on the continent.

The building has an outdoor pool at 76 th floor, another at 43 -th floor . Inside the building there is a 300-room hotel as well as offices and private apartments. For those with a robust constitution, 2,909 steps connect the ground floor with the 160 -th . The viewing platform is located on the 124th floor . The surrounding park, known as Burj Khalifa Park, is planted with desert plants that are supplied with water collected by the building's cooling system. This building relies on the cooler air of the upper part of the building to lower the temperature in the lower part of the structure.

. 1 The Apollo Space Program

It remains one of the outstanding engineering achievements in human history. No other program has brought people into a different environment than their home planet and brought them safely back to earth. Not only did Americans walk on the surface of the moon, but they drove on it with a battery-powered vehicle that could carry two astronauts and took a lot of space for the lunar explorers. She was carried to the moon in the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) and used for the last three lunar missions in the early 1970s. In 2003, the National Academy of Engineers named the program "the greatest effort of the engineering team in American history."

The Apollo program led to significant advances in integrated circuit design and contributed to the growing cause of environmental protection. 20% of the world's population watched television when astronaut Neil Armstrong left the first human footprints on the lunar surface. NASA called for spin-offs from the space program in the areas of freeze-dried foods, reflective emergency blankets, portable vacuum cleaners, and more than 2,000 other areas. The LASIK operation is a direct descendant of the technology developed for docking vehicles in space, first introduced as part of the Gemini program, in which astronauts learned the techniques required for Apollo.

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