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10 obscure but astounding episodes of Earth's mass extinction



The earth has suffered five great extinctions and countless small ones. A potential sixth mass extinction, the only one created by the planet's own inhabitants, threatens. In the spirit of collective mass improvement, it is now the perfect time to look at scenes of chaos and sales that we want to avoid in the future.

From the hectic rise of the dinosaurs to the numerous catastrophes that darkened the skies, acidified the oceans and transformed our blue planet into a light landscape, these impressive scenes of destruction and rebirth shaped the Earth.

10 Dinosaurs exploit extinctions

Dinosaurs entered evolutionary history in the same way – with an extinction.

This occurred about 232 million years ago during the Carnian Pluvial episode of deep-sea volcanoes (the Wrangellia basalts in British Columbia today) forced climate change and a change in ancient life. [1]

This brought the earth into a series of wet and dry episodes. In particular, four consecutive warming and cooling pulses in just one million years led to several extinction scenarios that destroyed the diversity of plant and animal life.

After that, dinosaurs needed a surprisingly short span of just two million years to claim the globe and its many, now unoccupied niches.

9 The Chicxulub asteroid achieves a lucky hit

The 10-kilometer-wide asteroid that took our dinosaurs away 66 million years ago was an exceptional stroke of luck that would not have killed the Dinos if taken elsewhere.

In fact, just 13 percent of the earth's surface contained the necessary materials to cause such mass extinction. The asteroid accidentally crashed into a patch of fossil fuel rich in hydrocarbons and sulfur. The incredible temperatures generated by the collision ignited these rich fuel veins. [2]

The resulting hellfire triggered large amounts of soot that blocked the sun and lowered the surface temperature to as much as 10 degrees Celsius (18 ° F). The escaping sulfur fell back as acid rain.

The researchers modeled other impact locations. They found that the only other places with catastrophic levels of fossil fuels were the east coast of North America, the Middle East, and Siberia.

8 A "Trickle Of Food" Nourishes Deep-Sea Creatures

About 66 million years ago, an asteroid hit the Yucatan Peninsula, relieving the Earth of dinosaurs. It also killed the huge marine reptiles and caused the immediate extinction of many microscopic marine life such as plankton, which feeds other animals.

But deep-sea dwellers survived, fed by a mysterious food source. The researchers are grateful for algae and some bacteria, photosynthetic organisms that withstand extinction and rained down deep into the ocean like a slow food spill for larger animals.

But life recovered quickly. The oceanic food chain has recovered in just 1.7 million years, as new species took over recently abandoned niches. [3]

7 The Neanderthals are expelled

Neanderthals were like us: they buried their dead, made tools, controlled fires, talked, cared for the needy, and created art. The inferiority of the species may not have led to their demise. A new model says that we did not kill Neanderthals in a bloody warfare. Instead, there was an infestation of the population.

Their territory extended only from Europe to Central Asia. As other types of early humans (with broader habitats) were infused, the resources were insufficient.

But the situation could just as well have been reversed. Had we lived in the same region and experienced similar emigration from the Neanderthal communities, we could have been the ones who had gone into obsolescence. [4]

6 Earth leaps like a bell

The earth's crust is filled with tens of thousands of kilometers of rifts or ridges in the mid-ocean, where lava bubbles between tectonic plates.

When the asteroid hit with Dino killing, it actually called Earth, sending seismic shocks in the form of magnitude 11 earthquakes across the planet. As the jolt reached deep, he shook the planet like a can of soda and irritated the ridges in the mid-ocean, which spewed more liquid matter.

The Evidence

Two massive magma humps ("humps") in the Pacific and Indian Oceans were found by scientists due to the increased attraction of the humps. They consist of 96,000-1,000,000 cubic kilometers (23,000-240,000 miles 3 ) magma, which formed within a million years after the impact. [5]

The outbreaks have grown to the great greats of natural history, and the increased volcanic activity continued up to hundreds of thousands of years after the impact.

5 A group of extinction drives the great dying

The End-Permian Extinction 252 million years ago, the worst of the earth's five mass extinctions. 70-75 percent of the land species and up to 95 percent of marine life have been eradicated (though some say it is closer to 80 percent). This extinction is therefore known as the Great Dying.

Recent research suggests, however, that it is more akin to large stains. The extinction was caused by a two-pronged geological attack. First, volcanoes suffocate the globe and the oceans acidify. Then a wave of Anoxie poured the oceans of oxygen.

After this major event, when the Siberian Traps released enough lava to cover an area larger than Alaska, two more mini-extinctions followed.

Volcanoes are to blame again. Carbon isotopes show that two major events occurred half a million years and 1.5 million years after the Great Dying, a wave of destruction that took 10 million years to recover. [6]

4 Hidden Eruptions Are Deadlier

Mass volcanism is always bad, but the situation can be more significant than the duration or strength. During the Great Dying mentioned above, subterranean outbreaks caused much more chaos. When the Siberian traps broke out, not all the lava leaked out. Some of them stretch over 1.6 million kilometers below the earth's crust.

It sounds like a happy break because underground belongs to lava. However, when it collected in the subsurface, it singeed carbon-rich sediments and sent greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

The result was an acidification of the oceans, a rise in temperature and an apocalyptic haze that decimated life. All in all, enough lava was released to cover a US patch to a depth of one kilometer. [7]

3 The dinosaurs faded long before the asteroid

Statistical analysis on The dinosaur pedigree showed a marked decline before the fatal asteroid attack 66 million years ago. The downturn started about 140 million years ago. Previously, new species had emerged faster than old ones. But 90 million years ago, 24 million years before E-Day, diversity went down the toilet.

Factors such as climate change and the continence of the continent collapsed among the high-powered dinosaurs: theropods ( T. rex and the like), Ornithischians ( stegosaurus ) and sauropods (the group Brontosaurus ). Conversely, the horned and duck-billed dinosaurs began to build a stronger foundation, possibly due to the rise of a new food group, the flowering plants.

Given these trends, some researchers believe that dinosaurs may have been ejected without catastrophic cosmic intervention. [8]

2 Space wants to kill us

Downfall can have a secret cosmic conspirator: dark matter.

Earth and our solar system smash the galaxy at more than 800,000 kilometers per hour. Every 30 million years or so, they go through the galactic disk in episodes that seemingly coincide with the extinction of the past.

Dark matter generally hangs in halos around the Milky Way – like galaxies. It also gathers in the central midplane of the galactic disk. So when the solar system flies through this region, the dark matter seriously disturbs the space rocks and throws some falls towards the earth. [9]

As the earth moves through these invisible lumps, dark matter accumulates inside. The particles explode, releasing up to a thousand times more energy than normal core temperatures. The material bubbles to the surface to stimulate volcanism, magnetic field reversals, and sea level changes.

1 Seedeaters Take Over

About 66 million years ago, a large asteroid was thrown into the ground, killing the dinosaurs for the most part. The bird-like Maniraptorans, however, continued.

Birdlike dinos came in two main varieties – serrated and not serrated. They consumed varied diets, but those without teeth with their short and robust beaks also ate seeds. Therefore, they survived the end of Cretaceous extinction, while their toothy brothers did not. [10]

Despite acid rain, dark skies, landscape-burning fires and the eradication of most food sources, Maniraptorans kept their bellies full. As? They cut through the ground for seeds that were deposited by these amazing new things, which were called flowers that grew during the Cretaceous.

Ivan Farkas writes about cool material for the internet. You can contact him at [email protected] .



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