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10 nonhumans who are lawfully human



Courts can classify non-human entities such as rivers, forests, mountains and animals as human beings. The courts do not necessarily call them humans. Instead, they give them the same rights that are granted to humans.

When this happens, damage to the nonhuman entity will result in the same penalty as the damage against humans. Imagine you were being tried for assault because you flogged a river. So far no one has been charged for it, so we have not yet been treated with legal humor.

10 Whanganui River


The Whanganui River in New Zealand is the first river to receive the same rights as a human being. The Maori tribe names the river Te Awa Tupua and considers it as its ancestor. The Maori generally consider non-living beings such as rivers, seas, and mountains sacred and believe that they have the same rights as humans.

For more than 140 years, the Maori have been trying to recognize New Zealand as a living entity for the Whanganui River. This ended in 2017, when a New Zealand court ruled that the river now had the same rights as humans.

This means, as indicated above, that anyone who violates the river can receive penalties that are reserved for the damage of a person. Considering that rivers do not speak, the court has appointed two persons (one Maori and one government official) as the guards of Whanganui. [1]

9 Ganges and Yamuna Rivers


2017 a court in the state of Uttarakhand In India it was decided that the rivers Ganges and Yamuna could be protected by the same rights as humans. Interestingly, the verdict was due to the decision of New Zealand's Whanganui River, which had been hit just one week earlier.

Hindus consider sacred the rivers Ganges and Yamuna. Both rivers are heavily polluted. Every day, 1.5 billion liters of wastewater and 500 liters of industrial waste are discharged into the Ganges. Human remains are also a problem. Some parts of the corridor are so polluted that they have become uninhabitable for aquatic life.

Soon people began to blame the governments of Uttarakhand and neighboring Uttar Pradesh, through which the Ganges flows, because they did not do enough to protect the sacred rivers. This led the court in Uttarakhand to conclude that the rivers could receive the same rights as humans.

Anyone who polluted the river could have been charged with assault or even murder. Because of the obvious communication problem between rivers and people, the court appointed three persons as guardians of the rivers.

Unfortunately, the Indian Supreme Court overturned the ruling several months later after the government of the state of Uttarakhand challenged the verdict. The state government insisted that a river could not be considered human. She argued that the judgment would lead to strange lawsuits if someone drowned or flooded in the rivers. [2]

8 Te Urewera

In 2014, the New Zealand government passed the Te Urewera Act. Named after Te Urewera National Park, it has been established that the forest forming the national park has the same rights as humans.

Under the new law, the forest can no longer be classified as a national park because it can not belong to either a person or the government. Their new owner is themselves. However, a board has been created to become the guardians of the forest. The law was passed to preserve the history and ecology of Te Urewera. [3]

Some Canadian academics have suggested that a similar law protecting the Te Urewera Act could be passed on heavenly bodies. The commercialization of space is a hot topic, and it is only a matter of time before some private companies begin mining minerals from asteroids.

7 All animals in Uttarakhand


One year after a river could be legal Humans, Uttarakhand returned to grant human rights to non-human entities. This time it was animals. The verdict ruled that all animals in the state have the same rights as humans.

The law was passed to stop animal cruelty, illegal poaching and pollution. Strangely, it included all native and wild animals, including birds and fish. Instead of appointing some people guardians of the state animals, the court appointed every citizen guardians.

Yes, everyone in Uttarakhand is required to ensure that every animal in the state is protected and maintained. The court declared every citizen in loco parentis (Latin for "in the place of a parent").

The law also prohibited people using pets to use dangerous tools on animals. All workhorses must also be stripped of their belts when temperatures are above 37 ° C (98.6 ° F) or below 5 ° C (41 ° F). Animals used for transport must also be boldly marked to avoid accidents. [4] Since the Supreme Court of India has struck down the decision on the rivers Ganges and Yamuna, we will see whether this holds.

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6 Sandra The Orangutan

In 2015, an Argentine court granted Sandra, a 29-year-old orangutan living in a zoo in Buenos Aires, the same rights as humans. Unlike other judgments, this judgment did not begin with the attempt to give Sandra the same rights as a human being.

It all began in 2014, when the Association of Animal Rights and Lawyers (AFADA) called for the release of Zoo Sandra. The zoo refused, and animal rights activists sued.

Instead of trying to persuade the zoo to release Sandra, the animal rights activists filed a habeas corpus to force the court to decide if Sandra should be treated as a person or a matter , Such petitions are usually filed to determine if a person's detention is legal.

Habeas corpus Petitions are generally submitted to humans only. However, AFADA lawyers filed an application for an orangutan, stating that Sandra was a "nonhuman person" who actually granted her the same rights that would be granted to a human being. In 2015, a judge agreed. [5] An attempt was made to release Sandra and transport her to a sanctuary in Brazil. From 2017 she remained in the zoo.

5 Happy The Elephant

Still on Habeas Corpus a New York court gave an elephant the same rights as humans in November 2018, after attorneys to the Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP) successfully habeas corpus petition filed in his name. The elephant in question is 47-year-old Happy, who lives in the Bronx Zoo in New York.

The Nonhuman Rights Project argued that Happy was lonely and did not get enough space. Their partners had either been euthanized or killed by other elephants. Happy is not only the first elephant ever to have the same rights as a human, but also the first elephant to pass the self-recognition test of the mirror, which tests self-perception in animals.

The success of habeas corpus allowed the court to set an appointment to determine whether Happy should be left in the zoo or released and transported to an elephant sanctuary. [6]

4 A pair of chimpanzees

And still on habeas corpus . In 2015, the Nonhuman Rights Project filed a petition for two chimpanzees at Stony Brook University, Long Island. New York. The chimpanzees were called Hercules and Leo and were used for biomedical research. NhRP claimed that they were illegally detained at school.

In 2013, NhRP filed the first habeas corpus application for the chimpanzees, which was, however, rejected. It filed several applications until 2015, when New York State Supreme Judge Barbara Jaffe issued [HabeasCorpus] Habeas Corpus and ordered Stony Brook University attorneys to court.

As in other cases, the court ruling Hercules and Leo actually granted the same rights as humans. Now it was up to lawyers at the university to successfully argue that the detention of chimpanzees was legal.

Judge Jaffe later retired habeas corpus for unknown reasons. The case remained, however. [7] Leo and Hercules were finally released and transported to a sanctuary in Georgia.

3 Mount Taranaki


In 2017, a New Zealand court granted Mount Taranaki the same rights as humans. The ruling made Mount Taranaki the third natural geographical feature granted human rights in New Zealand.

The law was passed at the urging of the Maori, who regard the mountain as a volcano that has not erupted since 1775, an ancestor and relative. The verdict should also preserve the mountain, which is a popular tourist attraction.

Any damage against the mountain is considered damage against the Maori. As usual, the court appointed the Maori and New Zealand government Guardians of the Mountain. 19459012 [8]

2 The Amazon Rainforest in Colombia


The gradual loss of the Amazon has been on the news for several years. The forest is being destroyed by farmers, miners, woodcutters and cocaine growers. Colombia has campaigned for the protection of the Amazon in its territory, which is as big as England and Germany combined.

As part of a verdict in 2018, the Supreme Court ruled that the Amazon rainforest within the borders of Colombia has the same rights as a human being. The court also ordered the government to protect the forest, accusing it of not stopping deforestation and protecting the forest much earlier.

While Colombia has taken steps to protect its own part of the Amazon, Brazil, which has a huge massive Amazon population, has not granted human rights or the like to the rainforest. And it does not seem like it's going to happen in the foreseeable future.

Indeed, Brazil considered the suspension of a law banning the Amazon from deforesting sugar cane cultivation when Colombia passed its law. Or maybe we blame the Brazilian youth for not protecting the rainforest because Colombia filed a lawsuit after 25 children and young adults between the ages of seven and 26 years. [9]

1 Atrato River

In 2017, the Colombian courts granted human rights to the Atrato River, which flows through the Choco Division in the northwest of the country. As part of the verdict, the court ruled that we humans are one of many species on Earth and have no other creatures.

Like the Amazon, the atrato has been badly damaged by illegal loggers and miners. The pollution in the river is so strong that life in the water is threatened. The Atrato is fed by over 15 other rivers and 300 streams. The water comes in, but gets soiled quickly as it enters the river. The court also ordered the government to clean up the atrato. [10]



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