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10 incredible things discovered by women



Women's contributions to our society can not be overstated, even though those individuals did not receive the credit they were due in most historical reports. In our modern day, the general perception of women had more to do with their role as mother and housewife than with science.

However, this is a false and unjustified characterization. Although women scientists were often denied recognition for their achievements, they were responsible for many groundbreaking discoveries and advances in science. They are still today.

10 DNA

Yes, that's right. The structure of the DNA was discovered by a woman.

Three men were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine because they gave us what we now know as a double helix, the molecular form of DNA. However, the discovery was made by a woman named Rosalind Franklin who worked with the men.

She was overshadowed by her colleagues when they accepted the prize. She did, however, make incredible contributions to this discovery, even though she was not in the limelight.

She managed to get a close-up photo of DNA. It was similar to an "X" on the movie once it was developed. The photo was later called "Photograph 51", and a piece about Franklin was produced with the same title.

This catapulted our understanding of ourselves and the innermost functions of the body, which has exponentially promoted physics, biology and chemistry since [1]

9 Inner Core of the Earth

The Earth is made up of several layers. Although there are several ways to categorize these layers, we divide them into the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core, discovered in 1936 by the Danish seismologist Inge Lehmann. [2]

The outer core has melted while the inner core of the Earth is completely solid. The discovery of the inner core helped us determine the age of the earth and many other things.

By measuring the cooling rate of the inner core of the Earth, we have discovered that the inner core is likely to solidify about 0.5 to 2 billion years ago. However, it is believed that the growth of the Earth's inner core plays a crucial role in the generation of Earth's magnetic fields.

8 The Milky Way Structure

Physics Professor Heidi Jo Newberg of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is well known for her contributions to our knowledge of the structure of the Milky Way. The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy containing our solar system. It covers at least 100,000 light-years.

Newberg and her team found that the Milky Way can hollow out stars from smaller galaxies. They also found that the Milky Way is larger than previously thought and has more waves.

In 2002, Newberg's research revealed that the disk of the Milky Way had curled. This led to a revised estimate of the galaxy's breadth from 100,000 light-years to about 150,000 light-years. However, scientists are still discussing this measurement. [3]

7 Nuclear Fission

A woman named Lise Meitner, one of the two who discovered nuclear fission, was seen all too often in 1945 when her partner received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Otto Hahn. He accepted it solely for the work the two had done together.

This was not the first time in her life that this happened. She had discovered radiationless transitions in 1923. Their discovery, however, was overlooked and attributed to Pierre Victor Auger, a man who found the same thing two years later. In fact, the phenomenon is referred to as "Auger effect". [1945930]

Meitner had already found the term "schism" in 1939 and explained the process in a work that she wrote with the help of her nephew Otto Frisch. Nuclear fission was a process that later contributed significantly to the formation of the atomic bomb.

6 Kinetic Energy

Gabrielle-Emilie Le Tonnelier of Breteuil, Marquise du Chatelet, was a 18th-century philosopher, mathematician and physicist. She gave us the first known description of kinetic energy as well as the first translation of the famous work of Sir Isaac Newton Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy . It is the standard translation until today.

Kinetic energy is the energy that a particle or object possesses due to its motion. Previously, Newton, Voltaire, and others had believed that the kinetic energy was proportional to the velocity of a moving object. Du Chatelet corrected her formula. First, she added that kinetic energy also depends on the mass of an object.

In total, she published four scientific and five other papers to cement her place in history in the fields of mathematics and physics. [5]

5 radiation

French scientist Marie Curie, born in Poland, discovered much of what we know about radiation today. She studied the radiation at depth, including uranium and thorium, and found that both were radioactive materials. She had also found a way to measure the total amount of radiation.

Their greatest claim to fame, however, was the bold (then) alleged claim that radioactivity depended not on the shape of an element, but on its atomic structure. She was the first person to use the term "radioactivity" and invented a new area of ​​scientific research called atomic physics.

Marie Curie twice won the Nobel Prize – in 1903 for physics and in 1911 for chemistry. [6]

4 Pulsars

It was November 28, 1967. The two astronomers Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Anthony Hewish were about to make an amazing discovery – the Pulsar – a fast-rotating one Neutron star that shoots A beam of electromagnetic radiation is triggered when turning.

The chances were small that they would come across one, as the beam of a pulsar must be aimed directly at the earth to be recognized. By chance, they were just looking at the sky on a clear evening when they made the discovery.

Jokingly, Burnell and Hewish called the electromagnetic impulses "Little Green Men," suggesting that aliens might try to communicate with us via a beam. However, it turned out that some stars are a completely natural phenomenon. [7]

At regular intervals, the distinct radiation pulses emitted by pulsars appear. The pulsating nature of the beam is due to the fact that the star rotates and the light repeatedly falls on the line of sight of the viewer.

3 Top Quark

In physics top quarks are the heaviest of all elementary particles. This was confirmed in 2014 by the Large Hadron Collider. Quarks are tiny particles made up of neutrons and protons, which are two of the three constituents of atoms. The third component is an electron, also called base particles, because it can not be degraded further. Atoms are the building blocks of matter in our universe.

The six types of quarks are up, down, strange, charming, below and of course above. The top quark was discovered by Melissa Franklin and a team from Fermilab. This was not the only time Franklin made a big discovery in the world of particle physics. She was also part of the team at CERN who discovered the long-awaited Higgs boson. [8]

2 Slow Light

Did you know that in some cases the speed of light can slow down?

This is certainly the case, which we got to know thanks to the Danish physicist Lene Vestergaard Hau, who discovered "slow light" vacuum moves the light at 299.792 kilometers per second. But when light wanders through matter, it slows down.

By injecting light into a so-called Bose-Einstein condensate (a state of matter), Hau and her Harvard team were able to reduce the speed of light to a minimum of 27 km / h. All the more amazing is that her team made a light stop in a Bose-Einstein condensate. [9]

Hau will be the first person in history to actually bring light to a halt] HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected more than 70 million people since its discovery in the 1980s, killing over 35 million people. It is our modern version of the black plague in a very real way.

In 2008, the French virologist Francoise Barre-Sinoussi shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Luc Montagnier and Harald zur Hausen. Half of the prize went to Barre-Sinoussi and Montagnier for their work on the discovery of HIV. (Zur Hausen received the other half of the prize for discovering human papillomaviruses that cause cervical cancer.)

Barre-Sinoussi's team tried to find out what causes AID. Believing that it might be a retrovirus, they found it when they prepared the lymph node of a person who had AIDS.

Terrifyingly, Barre-Sinoussi believes that curing HIV is virtually impossible.



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