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10 fascinating facts about W.E.B. You Bois

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born just three years after the end of the civil war and experienced the early days of the civil rights movement. As a thinker, scholar, and activist, Du Bois was an integral part of the transition from one era to the next, not only by making a notable contribution to the public discourse on racial differences, but also by putting his faith into practice as an organizer. His heritage is consolidated through his social science efforts and the social justice groups he has founded. Here are 10 facts about W.E.B. Du Bois

1. NETWORK. Du Bois was the first African American to receive a PhD. from Harvard.

Du Bois attended Fisk University from 1

885 to 1888 before pursuing a second bachelor's degree from Harvard College. In 1892 he received a scholarship from the John F. Slater Fund to study at the University of Berlin, but he was not yet tired of science. He returned to the United States in 1895 and became the first African American to receive a doctorate. from Harvard with his dissertation "The Suppression of the African Slave Trade in the United States of America: 1638-1871". During his studies at Harvard, Du Bois was taught by the eminent American philosopher and pioneer of psychology William James, who influenced the thinking and writing of Du Bois.

. 2 Du Bois carried out the first major case study of a black community in the United States.

Published in 1899: "The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study" was the result of a study by Du Bois of the city's black population from 1896 to 1897. The study, which involved 5000 personal interviews, attempted to address the social problems of the city identify black population. It was not only the first case study of a black community, but also an early effort of sociological research as a data-driven, statistically-based social science. Du Bois concluded that the root of the multivariate problem was how black Americans were perceived, noting that the problems would diminish if the whites perceived their black neighbors as equal rather than inferior: "The city's white people must The grief and bitterness that surrounds the life of the American Negro is based on unconscious prejudices and semi-conscious acts of men and women who have no intention of hurting or annoying themselves. He also mentioned the historical causes of the so-called "Negro problem", including the heritage of systemic slavery and a biased housing policy, according to which black members of society pay more for poorer accommodation.

. 3 Du Bois published The Souls of the Black People in 1903.

In The Souls of the Black People Du Bois discussed his concept of "double consciousness," an existential state that was persecuted by the persecuted is experienced groups in oppressive societies, which are characterized by the recognition of their identity, are split. Du Bois wrote: "You can ever sense his duality – an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled aspirations; two struggling ideals in a dark body whose relentless power keeps it from tearing.

Du Bois' former Professor James praised The Souls of Black Folk after his release a copy of Du Bois's distinctive work for his brother, the famous American writer Henry James.

4. Du Bois founded the Niagara Movement and rejected Booker T. Washington.

During the reconstruction period in the South, African Americans experienced more social freedom and political participation, and shortly before the turn of the century the southern states began to restrict their voting rights decoupling the possibilities of separation, and Booker T. Washington finally helped draft the compromise of Atlanta – a principle that black Americans should do Avoid protesting for civil rights as long as they have access to justice and jobs On the capitulation tactics of Washington Du Bois and the newspaper editor William Monroe Trotter l 1905 green He called a group to found the Niagara Movement, which spoke out for equal treatment, economic equal opportunities, equal educational opportunities and "suffrage for men".

. 5 The views of Du Bois gained more support after the 1906 Atlanta Race Riots.

Between September 22nd and 24th, 1906, more than 10,000 whites responded to unsupported reports of black men who had raped four white women through Atlanta and beat every black man they could find. The riots led to a series of deaths (the exact number could even be 10 or up to 100) and spat as an absolute betrayal of justice in Washington, as if he wanted to go.

After the disturbances, Du Bois wrote the poem "A Litany of Atlanta" and bought a shotgun in response. Du Bois and others felt that Roosevelt and his Secretary of War William Howard should have sent Taft troops to prevent further violence. In 1908, along with an incident involving soldiers in Brownsville, Texas, Du Bois proclaimed that if Taft were to receive the Republican nomination, the blacks would support the Republicans (a party that has been holding them since Abraham Lincoln loyal) fell "Confessing Enemy [is] better than false friends."

. 6 Du Bois co-founded the NAACP.

Four years after the meeting in Niagara, Du Bois founded the National Association for the Promotion of the Colored People (NAACP) alongside journalists such as Mary White Ovington and lawyer Moorfield Storey. It was created as a biracial organization that would protest and promote equality (much like its predecessor, the Niagara Movement). His earliest battles included the fight against the Jim Crow laws in the South (which separated public institutions), the ousting of President Woodrow Wilson at public workplaces, and the lobbying for the right of African Americans to serve as military officers in World War I. Five years after its founding, it had 6,000 members in 50 offices. From 1910 to 1934, Du Bois served as director of public relations and research, served on the board, and published the monthly The Crisis which dealt with art and politics.

. 7 Du Bois was a civil rights activist on a global scale.

Du Bois's interest in equality extended beyond his own national boundaries. He was involved in organizing several pan-African conferences after being first present in 1900 in London. There he wrote the "Address to the Nations of the World," which urged the United States and European nations to combat systemic racism and end colonialism. He was also a member of the NAACP's three-member delegation to the founding conference of the United Nations in 1945. As a writer and activist, he fought for freedom and equality for the entire African diaspora and for the Africans themselves. [19659002] 8. He was a victim of McCarthyism.

In 1942, the FBI launched a file on Du Bois – a self-professed socialist – in the 1950s, when McCarthyism peaked – Du Bois, who served as the chairman of the Anti-Nuke Peace Information Center, and four other people were accused of not to have the organization registered with the government. If they had been convicted, they could have received five years in prison and a fine of $ 10,000.

However, the jury was unable to pass judgment, as the judge had dismissed the case after the defense attorney Vito Marcantonio was notified that Albert Einstein would testify for Du Bois. (The two were pen pals, and Einstein even wrote an essay for The Crisis .)

9. Du Bois became a citizen of Ghana, but never renounced his US citizenship.

The repercussions of the McCarthy-era repression were profound. Some colleagues from Du Bois kept their distance, including the NAACP, which has never publicly raised its defense. Despite the lack of condemnation, the government revoked the Pass of Du Bois for eight years. After his resumption Du Bois traveled to Ghana in 1961 (at the age of 93) to work on an encyclopedia of the African diaspora. When the United States refused to renew its passport in 1963, Du Bois became a symbolic protest of Ghana's citizens. He has sometimes been mistakenly included in the list of famous people who have renounced their American citizenship, but Du Bois has never formally done so.

10th He died the day before the speech "I Have A Dream".

Du Bois was 95 years old when he died on August 27, 1963 in Accra, Ghana. (Du Bois' house in Accra, where he is buried, was transformed into the monastery WEB Du Bois Center, a small museum during his time in Ghana.) The next day, Martin Luther King jr. The famous speech in March in Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where he shared his dream. It seems that fate is not without poetry.

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