Every year, surprising discoveries are made on our planet, in our solar system, and even further out in the Deep Void. These insights drive our understanding of the reality in which we live and often challenge earlier notions of universal physical laws.
When a discovery – sometimes with a lack of context – is beyond the bounds of our understanding, it will often silence the brightest experts. Here are 10 secrets that amaze modern scientists.
10 Giraffe Skin Disease
Since the 1990s, astounding cases of skin diseases have hit giraffes in captivity and in the wild. It is a widespread disease in sub-Saharan Africa.
Experts are unable to determine if this mysterious disease is due to a combination of diseases or if there is an environmental impact. The scientific community does not yet know how this disease spreads, whether it can be transmitted to other species or whether there is a cure.
Currently, Fred Bercovitch, director of Save The Giraffes, advocates that skin disease plays no role in giraffe protection as there is no information on how the condition affects the reproduction and mobility of the animals. A better understanding of the impact of this disease on the giraffe population could greatly enhance conservation efforts in the future. 
9 East Shifting Tornado Alley
In areas east of the Mississippi, tornado activity has increased in recent decades. In the meantime, the states in the area, commonly known as Tornado Alley, have experienced a significant decline.
Although states such as Oklahoma, Colorado, and Texas still have the most tornadoes each year, the total has fallen since the late 1970s. The largest decline is in central and eastern Texas.
This change in atmospheric activity causes scientists to believe that Tornado Alley is shifting east and they do not know why. Areas where tornadoes were often unreported before the digital age are, surprisingly, the same regions where tornado activity was most likely attributed to the drying of the Great Plains. Tornadoes form along the dry line, where the dry air from the west meets the humid air from the Gulf of Mexico, a mixture that causes violent thunderstorms. The dry line shifts to the east, as well as the tornadoes.
However, it is not known if the shift is caused by our impact on the environment or an influence of nature.
8 Mysterious Seismic Waves
Seismic waves were recorded on 11 November 2018 by monitoring stations worldwide, prompting scientists to speculate on the cause of this unprecedented event. They were able to prove their original location as far as Mayotte, a French island between continental Africa and Madagascar.
This region was plagued by earthquakes last year, but its decline has led to a decline. However, on 11 November, no earthquakes were reported, especially nothing that could generate the seismic signal. The strange signal was called better than an earthquake.
The 20-minute seismic waves traveled thousands of miles around the world. They triggered earthquake monitors, though strangely no one was able to perceive them above ground.
Since the signal was so unusual, its origin is difficult to determine. John Ristau, a geo-geologist at GeoNet, compared the Mayotte signal with that of the North Atlantic quake of magnitude 6.3. Although both signals were visible, they were very different.
As Ristau explained: "You can see that the amplitude of the [Mayotte] signal varies with time; However, the frequency or period of the signal is practically the same for the entire time. This implies a source that generates a signal with a consistent frequency but varies in strength. " 
An earthquake typically has a wide range of frequencies and periods during which it generates energy.
Anthony Lomax, an independent seismologist, suspected that the activity was likely caused by an underwater volcano north of Mayotte. Another possibility is an unconfirmed slow earthquake that triggered the event.
7 Antarctic Particle Physics
Physicists in Antarctica have seen a high-energy particle impact from space, and they have no idea why or how this event happened. They believe that this must be a kind of cosmic radiation.
The accumulation of particles that make up the standard model of particle physics should not be able to travel in that direction. However, this is exactly what was observed in March 2016 by NASA's Antarctic Antarctic Antarctic Antarctic Antenna (ANITA).
It is known that low-energy particles can travel miles through the earth without being affected. High-energy particles, however, behave differently because, due to their large cross-sections, they are likely to collide with something as soon as they enter the earth. Therefore, they do not come out.
Most scientists suggest that ANITA has captured a whole new type of particle. Some theories include an atypical distribution of dark matter within the earth or a kind of sterile neutrino that rarely collides with matter.
According to Penn State researchers, who combined data from ANITA and IceCube, another Antarctic-based neutrino observatory, the particles erupted. The space ice has less than a 1 to 3.5 million chance of being part of the standard model of particle physics. Persistent Noctilucent Clouds
The mesosphere, the part of the atmosphere that almost touches the room, is very cold and dry. During the summer, ice crystals the size of cigarette smoke particles form dust, possibly meteoroids, at -125 degrees Celsius (-193 ° F). When that happens, shortly after sunset, it produces a blue, luminous cloud called noctilucent clouds.
These fascinating clouds were first observed about two years after the eruption of Krakatoa in the 1880s. In 2006, however, scientists were able to answer questions about their nature and education.
A new mystery about the persistence of noctilucent clouds has recently emerged during the summer season of 2018. They are observed each year and follow an expected routine: they began their training in May, intensified in June and disbanded until the end of July. It was a shock for sky watchers in the northern hemisphere to intensify these spectacular night lights in July and stay well into August.
Using data from NASA's satellite-based Microwave Limb Sounder, researchers at the University of Colorado recognized that an increase in humidity is responsible for the continued effects of noctilucent clouds. We do not know why the moisture is increasing.
However, some theories are already in effect. First, there is early entry into the solar minimum (originally expected in 2020), which may be associated with the coldest and wettest years in the mesosphere. Another possible explanation is the effect of planetary waves in the southern hemisphere, which causes more moisture in the northern atmosphere than one would normally expect. 
5 The enigmatic hexagonal vortex of Saturn
The data from the Cassini-Huygens mission are analyzed It reached Saturn in 2004 and ended in 2017. It observed a strange hexagonal vortex at the north pole of Saturn, as the northern hemisphere in joined the summer. This vortex protruded hundreds of miles above the clouds in the stratosphere.
In the 1980s, NASA's Voyager probe detected a hexagonal vortex in the planet's atmosphere, but was surprised by Cassini-Huygens' findings. Leigh Fletcher of the University of Leicester said:
While we expected a vortex of some sort at Saturn's North Pole of some kind as it warmed up, its shape is truly surprising. Either a hexagon emerged spontaneously and identically at two different heights, one deeper in the clouds and one high in the stratosphere, or the hexagon is actually a towering structure that spans a vertical span of several hundred kilometers.
A A process called evanescence is a way of providing wave information to penetrate the stratosphere, although its strength decreases with altitude. However, according to our understanding of the atmospheric sciences, a hexagonal vortex should not be able to pass the lower altitude clouds as the wind directions change at higher altitudes.
Breaking the geometric puzzle helps scientists understand the transport of energy around the planets by understanding how the higher atmosphere is affected by the lower altitude environment.
The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) used in the Cassini-Huygens mission also showed that Saturn's poles have surprisingly different behaviors. The South Pole has a much riper circular vortex during the South Summer. This may indicate that the northern vortex of Saturn will continue to ripen. Alternatively, Saturn may have asymmetric poles that are yet to be understood. 19459011 
4 The Missing Dark Matter
A team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum has discovered a galaxy called NGC1052-DF2, which lacks dark matter. Astronomers scratch their heads because the lack of dark matter in this galaxy confirms the presence of the substance and casts doubt on our current understanding of the formation of a galaxy.
Our understanding today is that galaxies create a halo of dark matter. Without dark matter, no galaxy should be able to form.
The team was able to study the mass of the 65 million light-years distant NGC1052-DF2 in more detail by adding 10 embedded star clusters to the Dragonfly Telephoto series. They found that the mass of NGC1052-DF2 was close to the total mass expected by the stars (visible matter). In addition, the mass of NGC1052-DF2 is only 0.5 percent of the mass of our Milky Way. 
Some have suggested that dark matter may not exist and we need to change our understanding of gravity. However, alternative theories of gravity still have something that mimics dark matter on a galactic scale. In fact, it should always be there.
Van Dokkum argues that if another law of gravitation applies to a galaxy, that law should affect all galaxies in the same way. As a result, each galaxy should look as if it had dark matter (though it is not), as the imitative factor would always be present.
This leads us to a paradoxical conclusion from van Dokkum. If all galaxies look like dark matter (even if it really is something else), the inability to detect dark matter in the galaxy NGC1052-DF2 proves that dark matter is real. Scientists are still debating this topic.
3 The Deep Space Flashing Light
When astronomers in the depths of space searched for the 80 percent of the Universe we can not see, they stumbled upon something unexpected. Miika Pursiainen and his team observed 72 intense light bursts from the Cerro Tololo International Observatory in Chile.
The hot light bursts were measured as 300 million kilometers (186 million miles) to 15 billion kilometers (9) billion mi). They also had a brightness that you would expect from a supernova, even though it did not last.
According to one theory, this event was due to a complication in the development of a type II supernova. A type II supernova occurs when a star blows its outer shell out of gas after heavy elements in the core of the star collapse.
This complication is currently being researched by the Australian National University. It has been termed a fast-developing light transient (FELT) that occurs when a star develops gas bubbles during the early stages of collapse. When the star becomes supernova, these gas bubbles explode due to the overheating effect. This is still a working theory, and only time will give us final answers. 
2 Strange Infrared Light Emission from a Pulsar
RX J0806.4-4123 is one of "The Magnificent Seven," a group of X-ray pulsars that are located within 3,300 light-years located away from the earth. These pulsars are hotter and slower than astronomers would expect for their age.
RX J0806.4-4123 emits a strange infrared light that is completely new to scientists. When an international group of astronomers observed the pulsar with the Hubble Space Telescope, they noticed the vast area of about 29 billion kilometers of infrared light emitted by the pulsar.
Obviously there is still a lot going on neutron star, since the infrared emissions are larger than the star alone can produce. So what is the source of energy? Scientists have proposed at least two theories: a fallback disk or a pulsar windmist. 
A fallback disk is a large dust disk formed after its explosion around the neutron star. Although such a disc has never been observed, researchers have suspected their existence.
This would explain the higher temperature and slower rotation of the star as well as the amount of energy needed to emit so much infrared light. Confirmation of the fallback disk would be a major advance in our understanding of the formation of neutron stars.
Let us now examine the theory of the pulsar wind nebula. The fast rotation of a neutron star with a strong magnetic field creates an electric field. If particles are accelerated in this field, again a pulsar wind can be generated. Infrared emissions would then be emitted from shocked particles that would be produced when the neutron star moves faster than the speed of sound through the interstellar medium.
However, the presence of an infrared pulsar-only nebula would be extraordinary.
1 The bird in the child's mouth
Fifty years ago, the remains of a small child were found in the Tunel Wielki Cave in the Saspowska Valley in Poland. The sex of the child is not known, but the skull of one bird was in the boy's mouth and another was on the child's cheek.
Although the discovery was peculiar, the bones were stored almost immediately in boxes and stored without thorough examination and evaluation. The results were not published except for a photo in a book of the eighties by Professor Waldemar Chmielewski, the man who had originally discovered the skeleton.
Anthropologists do not know why the child was buried this way or in this place 200 years ago. The only other human remains found in the cave were at least 4000 years old.
The mystery does not stop there. Although the University of Warsaw has bones from the teenager's body, she does not have the child's skull. In fact, it is missing. It was sent to anthropologists in Wroclaw after the excavation, but nobody seems to know where the skull is now.