Behind the pearl-like eyes and nightly "Ribbit" lurks a fascinating creature. Frogs and toads leap in life a funny line. They take buffalo taxis and dating sites. In the history of humanity, froggy feet have also left impres- sive imprints that have inspired everything from famous novels to the first pregnancy kits.
Centuries of studies have failed to probe the boundaries of these amphibians. They still succeed in surviving scientists with their ability to survive bizarre injuries and mutations.
10 Visible Hearts
The hyalinobatrachium genus of frogs has transparent bellies. The unusual look soon brought the little amphibians the title "glass frogs". The skin of two species occurring in Central and South America extends across the chest and shows their hearts.
In 2017, a third glass frog was found to open his heart to the world. Called H. Yaku it was a bit strange. A visible heart is a strange thing in nature, but H. Yaku looked different than other glass frogs.
All other species need a bit of thought and maybe a magnifying glass to distinguish them from each other. H. yaku appeared in Ecuador's trees, with unique green spots and distinctive songs. They also had a light green to yellow-green skin. Interestingly, DNA testing showed that this frog was not closely related to the other two types with visible hearts. 
9 Thousands smuggled
Frog legs are considered a French delicacy. Some other European countries also consume amphibians. To meet the demand, the animals are imported from other places like Turkey.
The latter sends a large number of frogs to Europe, but also regulates the trade strictly. To ensure that the frogs are not exploited, they may only be collected by certain people. Hunters must be in possession of the right license and can only collect certain species at specific seasons. This is simply too much bureaucracy for poachers, who often mass-gather the animals before selling them to overseas buyers. 
In 2017, Turkish authorities caught five men trying to do just that. When their minibus was stopped for a routine search, the agents found about 7,500 water frogs. The poachers confessed, and the abducted amphibians were released into the wild.
8 The Match.com Frog
In Bolivia you can visit the Museo de Historia Natural Alcide d & # 39; Orbigny. Romeo lives in this longtime institute. This frog spends his days paddling a paddock and resting in the shade. By species he is a Sehuencas water frog and by heart very lonely.
After ten years of croaking, as romantic as he could, Romeo gave up in 2017. What his human carers feared, he finally sank one of the last known frog of its kind. As Romeo's calls fell silent, the scientists continued their search for a partner.
In a creative move, they exposed Romeo's profile on the online dating site Match.com. It raised enough money to send researchers to the Bolivian cloud forest. In the past it was full of Sehuencas water frogs. However, the usual suspects had decimated them – pollution, habitat destruction, and lethal fungal infection by chyrites. 
The 2019 Expedition found five Sehuencas. Only two were female, but one was the perfect age for Romeo. If the couple does not find a romance, the bipedal Cupids try an in vitro fertilization.
7 They have kneecaps
Frogs have been dissected and examined for centuries. One fact, however, succeeded in escaping scientists by 2017. As it turns out, the small funnels have kneecaps. Strange too.
It all started with the discovery of sesamoids. These bony structures are embedded in tendons over joints so that they essentially result in kneecaps. They appeared in species that were thought to have none, which inspired an Argentine team to try their luck with frogs.
Incredibly, they found something. A close look at 20 frog species showed a primitive cap, not a sesamoid yet. It was more of a cartilage leak, soft and small. In fact, so small that it was barely visible under a microscope. Instead of protecting the joints from a blow, the mushy pads could be present to relieve the constant strain under which the frog's knees are located. 
Although the primitive structures in the present sense are not kneecaps, it suggests that the first caps did not develop with the first tetrapods that crawled ashore. Instead, they came with amphibians.
6 Test Frogs Made Chytrid Global
To date, the Chytridae fungus has endangered or extincted 200 species of amphibians. As it spread around the world, it was unclear, but recently a candidate jumped in the foreground – the African clawed frog.
In the 1930s, doctors injected women with urine samples. When the pee was from a pregnant woman, a pregnancy hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin) ovulated the frog. The next morning the tank was full of eggs. Because the method was successful and repeatable, the frogs were in high demand and shipped all over the world.
Today's maternity womb used by women today became available in 1988. The frogs were no longer needed and many were released into the wild. The worldwide distribution of the species made it a good candidate for the devastating fungus, but in 2006 it was confirmed when Chytriden were found in Clawed Frogs in California. Most were healthy, a strong indication that the species is the original carrier of the disease. 
5 Frog without Lung
About 30 years ago scientists found a frog that was so rare that only two specimens were known. Because of the rarity, dissection was not an option. But if that had happened, something out of the ordinary would have come to light. The creatures Barbourula kalimantanensis had no lungs.
In 2008, the researchers went to Borneo to find more information. Unfortunately, the small amphibians loved remote jungle areas and, worse, rivers that were fast and freezing cold. A diver developed hypothermia. Despite the hiccup, however, several frogs were found.
Nobody had any idea of the bizarre anatomy until they had cut a few. The stomach, spleen and liver took up the space normally reserved for the lungs. There was also a mysterious piece of cartilage. Best of all, the species uses oxygen through their skin. 
Another bonus was how primitive they were. The researchers hope that the frogs can explain why in the past, and in any case only in amphibians, lungs of other old animals had disappeared.
4 Buffalo Buffet
In northern Turkey, water buffalos roam the wetlands collecting frogs as much as possible. Clever swamp frogs found that the hairy beasts attract flies. When buffalos approach, the amphibians climb on their backs and hunt the insects. This also frees the buffalo from an irritating pest. 
Before researchers found this peculiar cooperation between the two species, no one believed that amphibians could partner with a large mammal. In 2012, the researchers visited the Kizilirmak Delta near the Black Sea. Within a week, they took on ten individual frog buffalo teams, each numbering up to 27.
Just to make sure that this is not a one-time event Freak Show, researchers returned the following year. The same thing happened. With both appearances in the fall, as the number of frogs was booming, this behavior could be a fresh response to the intense competition for the food season.
3 Eyes in frog mouth
One day two Canadian girls discovered a toad without eyes. One local journalist, however, noticed that he seemed more aware after opening his mouth. The reason triggered a permanent secrecy. The animal had eyes, but they were attached to the roof of his mouth.
This was probably a macromutation – a major change at birth rather than something that slowly developed over several generations. Although small genetic changes are required for this phenomenon, the toad's condition has never been seen before. 
One cause of macromutation is a parasitic infection. In particular, the trematode worm causes amphibious hosts to sprout additional, deformed or missing hind legs. This was probably not the case. The eyeballs were healthy and functional, just in the wrong place. In spite of the weirdness, it was worlds away from worm-induced limb abnormalities.
2 They inspired Frankenstein
An Italian doctor named Luigi Galvani had electric shocks on frog legs in the 18th century. When they moved, everyone was excited. Electricity was a newly discovered force – and was barely understood. When the experiments seemed to restore life, it led to the practice of galvanism, the search for a revival of the dead by electricity.
It was an inspiration to Mary Shelley for her gothic novel from 1818, Frankenstein . Another famous writer of the time, Lord Byron, was a close friend. Shelley once said to him, "Maybe a corpse will be revived; The galvanism had given a sign of such things: perhaps the constituents of a creature could be made, brought together, and provided with vital warmth. 
Exactly that was their main character Dr Frankenstein did. The galvanism is now outdated, but it has helped to bring a classic title to the shelves. All thanks to the spasm of frog legs.
1 The Faceless Toad
In 2018, researchers walked around a forest in Connecticut. They were on a mission to gather information about newts. Instead, they came upon a crazy toad. More precisely, the amphibians constantly hit their feet and everything around them.
The creature could not see. His entire face was missing. At first it seemed like magic was going on. The adult American toad was healthy and the terrible wound was covered with old scar tissue.
How did she survive?
Unfortunately, the researchers believe that they died soon after their discovery. The frog was probably in hibernation when he suffered an attack that removed the nose, eyes, jaw, and tongue. For some reason, the predator never killed the sleeping toad.
Left alone and without the need to eat, the remaining hibernation time allowed the amphibian to heal. However, it became blind and unable to search. Even if it was possible to avoid predators, the toad was doomed to starvation.